Summer is the season of infectious diseases, common infectious diseases include: influenza, hand, foot and mouth disease, chicken pox, mumps, herpetic pharyngitis and so on.
Wash your hands frequently
Frequent hand washing is an important measure to prevent respiratory infections such as influenza. Frequent hand washing is encouraged, especially after coughing or sneezing, before eating or after contact with contaminated environments.
Keep the environment clean and ventilated
Keep indoor environment clean and well ventilated. Clean the room regularly, ensure that the window ventilation time every day and often dry clothes, bedding.
Drink plenty of water
Summer weather is hot, children should drink more water, drink less beverages. Plain water can be metabolized immediately after entering the human body, and has the function of regulating body temperature, conveying nutrients and cleaning toxins in the body.
Parents should try not to take children to large indoor entertainment places
In the season of high incidence of respiratory infectious diseases, try not to go to crowded indoor large recreational places and other places to reduce the chance of contact with the sick people. Try to avoid contact with respiratory infection patients, usually wear a mask.
Maintain good hygiene
Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or towel when coughing or sneezing. Wash your hands after coughing or sneezing. Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth with your hands.
If symptoms appear, rest at home and seek medical attention as soon as possible
Once the child has fever, cough and other symptoms, should rest at home. Masks should be worn in public places to avoid spreading the virus to other people. If the symptoms are severe, go to the hospital as soon as possible for timely and effective treatment.
Common infectious diseases generally have vaccines, timely vaccination is the best means to prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases.
Common infectious diseases and prevention in summer
Influenza, the acute respiratory infection caused by influenza virus, has very strong infectivity. The incubation period is 1~3 days, the main symptoms are fever, headache, runny nose, sore throat, dry cough, systemic muscle, joint pain and discomfort, fever generally lasts 3~4 days, there are also severe pneumonia or gastrointestinal influenza.
Measures to prevent
1,Wash hands according to the prescribed procedures before meals, after using the toilet and after going out. Cover up sneezing, coughing and nose cleaning with tissue, and do not mix personal hygiene products.
2,Natural ventilation can effectively reduce the number of microbes in indoor air, which is the simplest and effective method of indoor air disinfection.
3, actively participate in physical exercise, more to the outskirts, outdoor fresh air, exercise every day to make the body qi and blood smooth, muscles and bones stretch, enhance physical fitness.
4, due to the early infectious diseases in summer have flu-like symptoms, easy to be ignored, so the body is not adapted to timely medical treatment, especially fever symptoms, should be diagnosed as early as possible, timely treatment. If there is an infectious disease, quarantine measures should be taken immediately to prevent expansion of the area.
2. hand, foot and mouth
Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease caused by enteroviruses and characterized by fever and rashes or herpes on the hands, feet and mouth. A small number of children may have central nervous system, respiratory system damage, some severe children disease progress quickly, prone to death.
Measures to prevent
1,Wash hands with soap or hand sanitizer before meals, after using the toilet, and after going home.
2,Caregivers should wash their hands before contacting children, after changing diapers and handling feces.
3, pay attention to maintain the family environment health, the bedroom should be often ventilated, frequently drying clothes.
4,The tableware used by children should be fully cleaned and disinfected before and after use.
5,Do not let children drink raw water and eat raw or cold food.
6,During the high incidence period of hand, foot and mouth, children should not be taken to public places where crowds gather and air circulation is poor to avoid contact with sick children.
7,Children with fever, rash and other related symptoms should go to the hospital in time.
8,Children with hand-foot-mouth disease treated at home should avoid contact with other children to reduce cross-infection.
9,Parents should air or disinfect children’s clothes in time, and disinfect children’s feces in time.
3. chicken pox
Varicella is an acute infectious disease caused by the initial infection of varicella zoster virus. It mainly occurs in young children and preschoolers. High incidence in winter and spring, its infectivity is strong, from 1 to 2 days before the onset of skin rash until dry scab period are infectious, contact or droplets inhalation can be contagious, susceptible children contact infection source of morbidity can reach more than 95%.
Measures to prevent
1,Do not touch sick people. If there are cases of chicken pox in the area, do not take children to some crowded places, and try not to go to the hospital, which is itself a place where the bacteria and viruses gather.
2,Isolation and observation. If the child has accidentally come into direct contact with the patient’s varicella fluid, contaminated utensils, or is at risk of being touched by the patient’s droplets, the child should be kept in isolation for two to three weeks.
3, enhance resistance. Usually to let the child more exercise, adhere to exercise, eat more vitamin C rich food, improve disease resistance.
4,Get vaccinated. Vaccinating against varicella is the most effective preventive measure at present. Because chickenpox has the characteristics of immunity for a long time, as long as the infection once, almost never happen again. Therefore, parents are advised to take their children to the CDC for vaccination.
Mumps, abbreviated mumps, commonly known as mumps on mumps, is a common respiratory infection with mumps on children and adolescents. Patient is the source of infection, through direct contact, droplets, saliva inhalation as the main way of transmission. Onset 2-3 weeks after contact with the patient. There is fever, chills, headache, myalgia, sore throat, poor appetite, nausea, vomiting, general discomfort, parotid gland swelling and pain for several hours, gradually obvious, the body temperature can reach more than 39℃.
Measures to prevent
1, in the epidemic of mumps, try not to take children to crowded places, not to play or party with children who have been suffering from mumps.
2,Educate children to develop good personal hygiene habits, participate in more physical exercise, and enhance their physical fitness.
3,Health workers in kindergartens will carry out monitoring, regular screening, and insist on morning inspection every day to do a good job in health care.
5,If suspected cases are found, medical observation shall be conducted in time.
6, the outbreak, to timely report to the local health institutions, and do a good job of disinfection of the activity site, at the same time as early as possible to susceptible people to contain mumps component vaccine emergency vaccination work.
7, the susceptible person who has contact with the infectious period mumps patient (has not been sick or has not been vaccinated) should be closely observed.
5.Herpetic pharyngitis in children
Herpetic pharyngitis in children is caused by coxsackie A virus, which occurs in summer. It is A common viral pharyngitis with epidemic. Clinical features are sudden high fever with sore throat, headache, anorexia, and often neck, abdomen and limb pain.
Symptoms of herpetic angina:
1,Incubation period: 2-7 days. The child has no symptoms, but the virus is replicating in large numbers.
2, prodromal period: 1-2 days, sudden sustained high fever or repeated high fever 38℃-40℃, accompanied by throat swelling, loss of appetite and other symptoms.
3, blister period: 2-3 days, in addition to high fever, the mucosa of the mouth palatal blister.
4, ulcer stage: low fever or fever, but also to the most painful period of children, due to ulcer pain drooling and even antifeeding phenomenon.
Measures to prevent
1,Vaccination (most important).
2,Guide children to wash their hands frequently, eat cooked food and drink clean water.
3,Focus on daily exercise.
4, home ventilation, often drying bedding, toys more disinfection.
5,Go to public places as little as possible.
Although there are many kinds of infectious diseases, as long as we pay attention to prevention and early detection, isolation, diagnosis and treatment, we can effectively stop the epidemic and transmission of them. Let’s work together to create a healthy environment for children to play with care and patience!