Blood enters the heart through two main coronary arteries and nourishes the heart through a vascular network on the surface of the heart muscle. Cholesterol and fat deposits form in arteries and narrow channels. This condition is called atherosclerosis. The blood flowing through the arteries forms a thrombus that blocks the arteries. Under physical or psychological pressure, the heart will beat faster and need more oxygen and nutrients. This is a condition that the coronary artery can’t cope with when it is seriously narrowed or blocked. As a result, insufficient blood supply to the coronary artery resulted in angina pectoris or heartache. The blood flowing to the myocardium suddenly decreases greatly because a thrombus blocks a coronary artery, which will lead to a heart attack, which is called coronary atherosclerotic heart disease.
The degree of coronary atherosclerosis varies. Mild lesions have no obvious effect on the heart and do not produce symptoms. Severe lesions can cause lumen stenosis. To a certain extent, although the blood supplied by it can meet the normal needs of the myocardium, when the workload of the heart increases (such as intense labor or emotional excitement), the blood supply of the myocardium will be insufficient, resulting in angina pectoris, arrhythmia and heart failure.
When the larger branches of the coronary artery are completely or almost completely blocked, the corresponding myocardium is necrotic due to lack of blood supply, and myocardial infarction will occur. There is chest pain in myocardial infarction, which is similar to angina pectoris, but more severe. Different from angina pectoris, there are no certain inducing factors. The duration of pain is long, often up to several hours or even 1 ~ 2 days, and the range is wide, which can affect the front chest, middle and upper abdomen. Severe can have shock, heart failure, arrhythmia, nausea, vomiting, fever and other symptoms. There are a series of special ECG changes in the occurrence of myocardial infarction, and the contents of serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase and creatine phosphokinase are increased. These two examinations are of great value in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. During coronary arteriosclerosis, myocardial ischemia, cardiac dysfunction, and even heart failure. In addition, it often causes various arrhythmias. If coronary artery disease is not treated, arterial obstruction will become more and more serious. Then, the blood supply to the heart will be greatly reduced, there will be a risk of heart attack, and may die. However, even after a major heart attack, the heart may recover to a fairly healthy level. But sometimes because the heart is seriously damaged, its pumping function is weakened, which can cause heart failure.
Drug therapy or surgery can effectively treat coronary artery disease. Doctors will use various drugs to reduce the burden of myocardium and prevent arrhythmia. There are two kinds of surgical procedures for the treatment of coronary artery disease. One is called coronary angioplasty, which is a small operation; The other is called coronary artery bypass grafting, which is a major operation. If a blood clot blocks a coronary artery, the doctor may inject a drug to dissolve the blood clot into the systemic circulation system within one or two hours of the patient’s onset to restore the blood to normal. Unfortunately, despite substantial progress in treatment, many people still die of coronary artery disease, usually within an hour or two after the onset of symptoms. Most cardiologists believe that reducing the death toll of coronary artery disease lies in emphasizing the importance of prevention, especially advising people not to smoke and teaching people to understand the initial symptoms of heart attack. If anyone has a crushing pain in the center of his chest, accompanied by dyspnea, sweating or dizziness, he will almost certainly have a heart attack and need emergency medical treatment.