Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as coronary heart disease, is a disease in which the accumulation of coronary plaque restricts the flow of blood to the myocardium. The symptoms of CAD depend on the severity of the obstruction.
In case of local obstruction, the patient may feel good when sitting down, but will feel chest pain and shortness of breath when walking or climbing stairs. The most serious blockage is the formation of blood clots in the arteries and the cessation of all blood flow, leading to a heart attack.
Drug treatment: taking antiplatelet drugs to prevent thrombosis; Taking anti myocardial ischemia drugs can reduce myocardial oxygen consumption, expand coronary artery, increase coronary blood flow and alleviate myocardial ischemia.
Bypass surgery: establish a channel between the proximal and distal ends of the coronary artery stenosis through surgical methods to make the blood bypass the stenosis to the distal end, so as to improve the blood supply.
Percutaneous coronary stent implantation: a slender catheter is inserted into the coronary artery opening, and the guide wire with balloon stent system passes through the catheter to reach the coronary artery stenosis. The balloon expands and compresses the plaque on the artery wall, and the stent expands to complete the mechanical support of the stenotic artery. Stents include bare metal stents, drug-eluting stents, and bioabsorbable stents.
After PCI, the doctor will prescribe antithrombotic drugs, and the patient needs to take them according to the doctor’s advice. These drugs are designed to reduce the risk of blood clots on the stent. Please be sure to follow the doctor’s instructions. In addition, doctors may prescribe drugs to improve heart health. The functions of these drugs include controlling blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Taking these drugs and changing lifestyle can effectively slow down the progress of cardiovascular disease and reduce the possibility of thrombosis in the future.
Regular exercise and eating heart healthy food are also ways to improve heart health. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends 40 minute aerobic exercise three to four times a week. For example, walking is also an important way of cardiovascular exercise. Heart healthy foods include fruits and vegetables, lean meat and whole grains, and avoid foods high in sugar and saturated fat. Patients can also obtain knowledge of healthy diet through other channels. Sticking to medication and changing lifestyle are challenging, but the rewards they bring are huge: for example, you can spend more time and energy with your relatives, better carry out work or hobbies and enjoy life. In addition, it should be noted that before starting to implement the exercise plan, change diet or other lifestyle, please consult your doctor first.
Regular physical examination
Regular physical examination in the hospital helps doctors track the progress of patients and study any successful experience or problems encountered during rehabilitation. Doctors also hope to understand any changes in symptoms and patients’ reactions to drugs and lifestyle changes, so as to help patients better improve their heart health problems by adjusting drugs or recommending programs.