Fatty Liver Health Education
Fatty liver is a lesion of excessive fat accumulation in liver cells, with a prevalence of more than 25%; it can be asymptomatic, or with discomfort in the right upper abdomen, weakness and poor appetite. Treatment is based on diet control, exercise, weight control and alcohol restriction.
Patients and family members should understand the basic knowledge of fatty liver and related diseases, and work together to create a good atmosphere of diet moderation, increasing exercise, limiting alcohol consumption, and paying attention to weight and waist circumference, as well as taking medication and regular medical checkups as prescribed by doctors.
Daily life management
(1) Healthy diet
Patients with calorie-protein deficient malnutrition should be given a high-calorie diet rich in protein, vitamins and micronutrients, with fewer and more frequent meals and extra meals before bedtime. Patients with fatty liver who are overweight or abdominally obese should reduce calorie intake, advocate a low-sugar, low-fat diet, three meals a day, regular and limited meals, no sugary drinks, no deep-processed foods and no late-night snacks, and formulate individualized dietary plans according to blood pressure, blood glucose, blood lipids and blood uric acid levels.
(2) Increase exercise
Fatty liver patients should develop good exercise habits, and strive to “stand rather than sit, walk rather than stand, fast rather than slow, and long rather than short activity time”, and walking or cycling to and from work is the best way to exercise, but attention should be paid to safety to avoid overexertion.
Quit smoking and limit alcohol, drink more tea and coffee, live a regular life, and avoid staying up late.
Daily condition monitoring
Monitor daily whether the diet is excessive, whether there is exercise, whether you have stopped smoking and limiting alcohol, and whether there is any physical discomfort. Measure weight, waist circumference and blood pressure frequently, and check biochemical indicators such as blood glucose, lipids, uric acid and liver function every 3 to 6 months. The liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas and both kidneys should be examined by abdominal ultrasound every 6 months to 1 year. If possible, body fat and skeletal muscle content and distribution should be analyzed by body composition meter every year, and fatty liver and liver fibrosis should be quantitatively assessed by instantaneous elasticity detector.
Patients with suspected cirrhosis need to be screened regularly for liver cancer by testing for alpha-fetoprotein and liver ultrasound, and for esophagogastric varices by gastroscopy.
Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, especially in combination with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes, need to be regularly evaluated for risk of cardiovascular disease development.
The occurrence and development of fatty liver is mainly related to obesity, type 2 diabetes, alcohol abuse and other factors, so comprehensive preventive measures must be taken in order to receive good results.
(1) Adjust the dietary structure. Adhere to the dietary plan of “plant-based food, animal-based food as a supplement, and food as the main source of energy”, and avoid the defects of the dietary structure of “high energy, high fat, high protein, low fiber, and deeply processed food”. Correct bad eating habits, three meals a day at regular intervals, breakfast should be full, Chinese food should be good, dinner is half full, avoid eating more, eat faster, snacking, eating sweets, eating late night snacks and sugary drinks as water and other bad habits.
(2) Limit alcohol consumption. For those who often drink to excess, reducing the amount of alcohol or abstaining from alcohol altogether is the only effective way to prevent the occurrence and development of alcoholic liver disease. People who are not able to win or who have nausea, vomiting and rapid heartbeat after drinking a small amount of alcohol, or who have a family history of alcoholic liver disease, should abstain from alcohol completely.
(3) Strengthen physical exercise.