Diarrhea means more bowel movements, thin feces, or mucus, pus, or undigested food. Diarrhea is a symptom of digestive tract disease. Diarrhea is often accompanied by defecation urgency, anal discomfort, incontinence and other symptoms. Diarrhea is divided into acute diarrhea and chronic diarrhea two types. Acute diarrhea occurs rapidly and the course of the disease is within 2 ~ 3 weeks. Chronic diarrhea refers to the course of more than two months or intermittent period in 2 to 4 weeks of recurrent diarrhea. Diarrhea can directly cause dehydration, malnutrition, etc., specific performance for dry skin, eyeball subsidence, dry tongue, skin folds.
According to the World Health Organization, diarrhea accounts for 20 percent of all deaths among children under five worldwide. Diarrhea kills 1.8 million children every year.
Acute diarrhea is defined as a disease that usually lasts less than 3 weeks and is most commonly caused by infection.
Food poisoning: Because food is contaminated by toxins such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, clostridium pneumoniae, botulinum and so on, it is mainly manifested as non-inflammatory watery diarrhea.
The intestinal infection
Viral infection: Non-inflammatory diarrhea of the small intestine may occur with rotavirus, Norwalk virus, or intestinal adenovirus infection. Rotavirus is a common pathogen of autumn diarrhea in children.
Bacterial infection: Vibrio cholerae and toxigenic escherichia coli may cause noninflammatory watery diarrhoea of the small intestine. Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia enterocolitica, invasive Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Clostridium difficile can cause colitis and produce pus and blood diarrhea.
Parasitic infection: giardia piroformis, cryptosporidium infection can cause small intestinal non-inflammatory watery diarrhoea. Histolytic enteramoeba causes inflammation, ulcers, and diarrhea with pus and blood when it encroaches on the colon.
Drug-induced diarrhea: laxatives, hypertonic drugs, cholinergic drugs, antimicrobials, and some antihypertensive or antiarrhythmic drugs do not cause diarrhea during the medication period.
Chronic diarrhea lasts more than 2 months, and its causes are more complex than those of acute diarrhea, so diagnosis and treatment are sometimes difficult.
Intestinal infectious diseases: ① Chronic amebic dysentery; ② Chronic bacterial diseases; ③ Intestinal tuberculosis; (4) giardia and schistosomiasis; ⑤ Intestinal candidiasis.
Noninfectious intestinal inflammation :① Inflammatory bowel disease (clonosis and ulcerative colitis); ② Radiation enteritis; ③ Ischemic colitis; ④ Diverticulitis; (5) Uremic enteritis.
Tumors :① Colorectal cancer; ② Colonic adenomatosis (polyp); ③ Malignant lymphoma of the small intestine; (4) Amine precursor uptake decarboxyloma (APU-DOMA); Gastrinoma, carcinoid, intestinal vasoactive intestinal peptide tumor (VIPoma), etc.
Small intestinal malabsorption: 1. primary small intestinal malabsorption. 2. Secondary intestinal malabsorption.
Dyspepsia: (1) lack of pancreatic digestive enzymes, such as chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, pancreatic fistula, etc.; ② Disaccharidase deficiency, such as lactose intolerance; (3) blocked bile discharge and combined with insufficient bile salt, such as extrahepatic biliary obstruction, intrahepatic bile stasis, intestinal bacteria too long (blind loop syndrome).
Reduced absorption surface of the small intestine: ① Excessive small bowel resection (short bowel syndrome); ② Proximal entero-colonic anastomosis or fistula.
Infiltrating diseases of small intestine: Whipple disease, α -heavy chain disease, systemic sclerosis, etc.
Sports sex diarrhea: bowel peristalsis disorder (most is accelerated) caused, such as irritable bowel syndrome, gastrectomy, after the vagus nerve is cut off, partial ileus, hyperthyroidism, adrenal cortex function, etc.
Drug-induced diarrhea :① Laxatives such as phenolphthalein, senna, etc.; ② Antibiotics such as lincomycin, chlorcomycin, neomycin and so on; ③ Antihypertensive drugs such as reserpine, guanethidine, etc.; ④ Liver encephalopathy drugs such as lactulose, lsorbitol, etc.