Thyroid nodule health popularization education
The thyroid gland is a butterfly shaped organ in front of the trachea and has close connections with nerves and blood vessels. It is the largest endocrine gland in human body and plays an important role in human growth and development and energy metabolism. Thyroid nodules are diseases that occur in this important gland.
Overview of thyroid nodules
Thyroid nodule is a common disease that can be seen in men and women of all ages, but it is more common in middle-aged women with a male-to-female ratio of about 1:4. Thyroid nodules can be single or multiple, and the nodules found by palpation account for 3%~7% of the population, while the nodules can be found by ultrasound in 20%~76% of the patients.
A thyroid nodule is not a specific disease, but rather a morphological description of a thyroid mass caused by a tumor, cyst, inflammatory mass, or other disease.
There are benign and malignant thyroid nodules, but there are few specific manifestations. Some benign nodules grow quickly and seem like malignant tumors, while some malignant tumors grow slowly and resemble benign nodules. Therefore, the judgment of benign and malignant nodules needs to be determined by specialists combined with the patient’s history, physical examination, laboratory examination and imaging examination. Of course, objectively speaking, most thyroid nodules are benign, and only 5% to 15% are malignant. And even when they are malignant, most are much less aggressive than other cancers. However, a good prognosis still requires professional and regular treatment and the active cooperation of the patients themselves.
How to detect thyroid nodules early?
With the continuous improvement of inspection equipment technology, the resolution of B-ultrasound can reach 1~2 mm at present, which is enough to find the vast majority of thyroid diseases and distinguish benign and malignant. Ultrasound examination has the advantages of non-invasive, convenient and cheap, making it the first choice for thyroid disease examination in the world.
Since the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased significantly in recent years, it is advisable to include a thyroid ultrasound when planning a physical examination.
Most thyroid nodules are benign, and mostly low-grade malignant thyroid cancer, is the so-called “inert”, development is very slow, so apart from a few high-risk groups such as familial thyroid cancer and head and neck has a history of radiation thereof, not every year will do thyroid ultrasound examination, we suggest that if there is no special exception check 2 ~ 3 years is safe and reasonable.
If your thyroid nodule is found by yourself or others accidentally, you do not have to go to the thyroid B ultrasound examination directly, it is best to go to the regular hospital thyroid specialist treatment, in order to make clear: there is no thyroid nodule; Whether the nodules are related to the thyroid.
Treatment of thyroid nodules
For most patients who are considered benign but have no obvious symptoms, there is no need for surgical treatment. Drug treatment or clinical observation can be selected according to the thyroid function. If highly suspected malignancy/confirmed malignancy, benign masses with compression, rapidly growing masses, retrosternal masses, and multiple masses with hyperthyroidism, surgical treatment is required. Although there are other methods such as anhydrous alcohol injection, radio frequency therapy and microwave therapy, these are currently controversial, and only surgery has expert consensus.
Health care measures for thyroid
(1) Try to avoid childhood head and neck X-ray irradiation.
(2) Keeping mental happiness to prevent emotional internal injury is an important aspect of preventing the occurrence of this disease.
(3) Appropriate intake of iodine-containing diet according to soil and water factors.
(4) Avoid the use of estrogen, because it plays a promoting role in the occurrence of thyroid cancer.
(5) Thyroid hyperplastic diseases and benign tumors should be dealt with in the thyroid department of regular hospitals.
(6) Active use of integrated Chinese and Western medicine treatment after thyroid cancer surgery is an effective method to improve the efficacy.
(7) Take active exercise to improve tumor immunity, quit smoking and drinking.