I often encounter this situation in outpatient clinics: “I have a heart disease.” “What kind of heart disease?” “In fact, heart disease is a very large concept, and it is necessary to be more specific about what part of the heart is wrong.
What are the main heart lesions?
The heart, which we often compare to a 4-bedroom house, has a heart attack: some are broken pipes, some are broken circuits, some are broken windows and doors, and some are broken walls: 1.
1.water pipes ≈ coronary vessels
House waterway is like the coronary vessels of the heart, we often say “coronary heart disease”, is the problem of water pipes.
Over time, the pipe aging rust, coronary vessels are the same, with the age of hardening, the accumulation of rust leads to more narrowing of the pipeline, resulting in angina, if completely blocked, leading to acute myocardial infarction.
2.Circuit ≈ cardiac conduction system
The electrical circuit of a house is like the electrical conduction system of the heart, which includes the sinus node, inter-nodal bundle, atrioventricular node, atrioventricular bundle, left and right bundle branches and Purkinje fibers, and the sinus node is the “general headquarters”.
Problems in any one of these components can lead to circuit malfunction and produce various arrhythmias, such as sinus arrest, atrial fibrillation, premature beats, AV block, etc.
3.The walls ≈ the heart muscle
The walls of a house are like the myocardium of the heart, and poor quality of reinforced concrete produces myocardial pathologies such as dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, etc..
If the walls are defective when the house is initially built, it leads to various congenital heart malformations, such as atrial septum and ventricular septal defect.
4.atrial door ≈ valve
The door of a house is like the valve of the heart, and there are four doors: mitral, tricuspid, aortic, and pulmonary valves. The inability to open or close the door leads to heart valve disease, such as stenosis or incomplete closure of the valve.
Heart disease is not a single disease, but a generic term for a class of diseases. Problems with water, electrical circuits, walls, doors and windows can affect the housing, as can problems with the heart, whether it is with blood vessels, the conduction system, the heart muscle or the valves, all of which affect the heart’s function as the pump of life that keeps the body functioning properly.
Heart disease is a general term for heart disease, including rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, coronary heart disease, myocarditis and other kinds of heart disease.
Classification of heart disease
1,Congenital heart disease
1、May be related to the mother’s disease or medication taken in early pregnancy;
2、Related to heredity
2, acquired heart disease
1, coronary heart disease: smoking and diabetes, hypertension, etc. lead to hardening and narrowing of blood vessels, so that blood flow is blocked, easy to make the heart muscle is damaged by lack of oxygen. The heart muscle is easily damaged by lack of oxygen.
2, arterial hypertension leads to left ventricular hypertrophy; pulmonary hypertension leads to right ventricular hypertrophy.
3,Rheumatic heart disease: chronic rheumatic heart disease is mainly in the rheumatic fever infection, the heart valves gradually lesion caused by the abnormal.
4,Pulmonary heart disease: chronic bronchitis, emphysema, etc. lead to pulmonary hypertension, making the right ventricle hypertrophy or failure.
5,Cardiomyopathy: myocardial changes caused by metabolic or hormonal abnormalities, and sometimes alcoholism and drugs also cause myocardial changes.
6,Cardiac tumors: mostly benign tumors, mucinous tumors are the most common, primary cardiac malignant tumors are rare.
7,Vascular lesions: including aneurysms caused by hypertension and other vascular lesions caused by abnormal immune function.