Clinically, headache can be divided into:
① acute headache: common, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage and other cerebrovascular diseases, meningitis or encephalitis;
② Subacute onset headache: such as temporal arteritis, intracranial tumor, etc;
③ Chronic onset headache: such as migraine, tension headache, cluster headache, drug-dependent headache, etc.
According to the etiology of headache, the second edition of the international classification of headache disorders (ICHD-II) formulated by the International Headache Association in 2004 divides headache into three categories:
① the primary headache: including migraine, tension headache, cluster headache, etc;
② The secondary headache: headache caused by head and neck trauma, craniocervical vascular factors, intracranial non vascular diseases, infection, drug withdrawal, mental factors and so on;
③ Cranial neuralgia, central and primary facial pain, and headache caused by other facial structural lesions and other types of headache.
There are many causes of headache, which can be roughly divided into primary and secondary. The former can not be attributed to an exact cause, but also can be called idiopathic headache, such as migraine and tension headache; The etiology of the latter can involve various intracranial diseases, such as cerebrovascular diseases, intracranial infection, craniocerebral trauma, systemic diseases, such as fever, internal environment disorder and abuse of psychoactive drugs. The details are as follows:
Febrile diseases caused by craniocerebral infection or acute infection of other systems of the body. Brain infections that often cause headache, such as meningitis, meningoencephalitis, encephalitis, brain abscess, intracranial parasitic infection (such as cysticercosis, hydatid), etc. Acute infections such as influenza and pneumonia.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral thrombosis, cerebral embolism, hypertensive encephalopathy, cerebral insufficiency, cerebrovascular malformation, etc.
Space occupying lesion
Headache caused by increased intracranial pressure caused by Craniocerebral Tumor, intracranial metastatic cancer and inflammatory demyelinating pseudotumor.
Head, face and neck neuropathy
Head and face innervation neuralgia: such as trigeminal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve and occipital neuralgia. Headache caused by head, face and facial features diseases such as eye, ear, nose and tooth diseases. Cervical spondylosis and other neck diseases cause head and neck pain.
Hypertension, anemia, pulmonary encephalopathy and heatstroke cause headache.
Such as concussion, brain contusion, subdural hematoma, intracranial hematoma and sequelae of brain trauma.
Poisons and drug poisoning
Such as alcohol, carbon monoxide, organic phosphorus and drugs (such as Belladonna and salicylic acid).
Internal environment disorder and mental factors
Menstrual and menopausal headache. Neurosis, somatization disorder and hysterical headache.
Such as migraine, cluster headache (histamine headache), headache epilepsy.