Hypertension is a common chronic disease, we found in the medical work, many people do not know enough about hypertension, think hypertension is a disease of the elderly, far away from their own, in fact, a lot of young people suffer from hypertension. Today I’m going to talk to you about hypertension.
Blood pressure and blood pressure measurement
When we talk about blood pressure, we usually refer to arterial blood pressure, which is the lateral pressure on the wall of the blood vessel as it moves through the arteries. Blood pressure is divided into systolic and diastolic, or high and low pressure. In the general population, a blood pressure of 90-139/60-89mmHg is considered normal, while a blood pressure of 90-119/60-79mmHg is considered ideal. You can check your blood pressure at a medical facility or at home. The following points should be noted when self-testing at home.
Choose the right sphygmomanometer and cuff. Family sphygmomanometer first choice electronic sphygmomanometer, young people choose arm or wrist can, the elderly choose arm measurement is more accurate. Most people can use a standard cuff (13-15cm wide, 30-35cm long), obese people should use a large cuff, children or arms too small should use a small cuff.
Stay calm before the test. Don’t exercise, drink coffee, or smoke within 30 minutes of taking your blood pressure. Before the test to urinate, sit and rest for 3-5 minutes.
Pay attention to position during measurement. Blood pressure is usually measured in the sitting position, but may also be measured in the supine position, with the cuff at the same height as the heart. When the blood pressure is first measured, both arms should be measured. If there is no difference on both sides or the difference is less than 5mmHg, either side can be measured. If the difference between the two sides is large but not more than 20mmHg, the side with high blood pressure shall prevail and be fixed on this side in the future. If the blood pressure difference between the two sides is more than 20mmHg, consult a medical professional.
Grasp frequency. Patients with normal blood pressure should have their blood pressure measured at least once a year. It is recommended to monitor blood pressure 2-3 times a day for those who are newly diagnosed with hypertension, who are in the early stage of treatment or whose blood pressure has not reached the standard after treatment. After treatment, blood pressure was well controlled, and blood pressure was monitored at least once a week in the morning, in the middle and in the evening, and blood pressure was measured at any time if uncomfortable.
Scientific prevention and Treatment of hypertension
Hypertension can be divided into primary and secondary types according to the cause. Essential hypertension is caused by a variety of factors, including genetic factors, environmental factors, poor diet, poor lifestyle, mental stress and so on. In addition to genetic factors, control and improvement of other factors are beneficial to blood pressure control. Secondary hypertension is usually an increase in blood pressure caused by other conditions, such as hyperthyroidism, renal artery stenosis, and certain kidney or adrenal diseases. When these diseases are treated, blood pressure drops to normal. If systolic blood pressure is ≥140mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure is ≥90mmHg, it should be taken 2-3 more times within 1-4 weeks. If the above values are reached at each measurement, hypertension can be diagnosed.
Initial hypertension, most people have symptoms, but because the symptoms are light or atypical, easy to be ignored. The common symptoms of hypertension are dizziness, headache, confusion, drowsiness, blindness, fatigue and so on. If officers and soldiers have the above symptoms, it is recommended to check their blood pressure to see if it is caused by elevated blood pressure. High blood pressure itself is not terrible, but it can cause complications, and the complications are irreversible. The main complications of hypertension are heart damage, brain damage, kidney damage, blood vessel damage, eye damage and so on. Prevention and treatment of hypertension to develop a healthy lifestyle.
Limit sodium intake. Daily sodium intake should be less than 6 grams for healthy adults and less than 3 grams for people with hypertension. This is not the amount of salt used in stir-frying, but the total amount of salt taken into the body from meals, snacks and drinks. Hypertension patients can use salt control spoon to control salt intake, meals can also be more acidic flavoring agent, to reduce the use of salt.
Control your weight and shape. You should have a body mass index of no more than 24 (divided by the square of your height) and a waist circumference of no more than 2 ‘6 “for men and 2’ 4” for women. If you need to lose weight, do not lose it too fast, it is recommended to lose 0.5-1 kg per week.
Stop smoking and limit alcohol. Existing smokers are advised to quit, especially those with high blood pressure. Daily alcohol intake should not exceed 25 grams for men and 15 grams for women, and people with high blood pressure should avoid drinking.
Exercise. Do 3-5 times of aerobic exercise and 1-2 times of strength training per week. It is important to note that everyone is different and exercise intensity should be individualized. Consult a doctor if necessary.
Avoid mental stress. Long-term mental stress can easily lead to high blood pressure. Getting enough sleep and practicing some simple relaxation techniques can help relieve mental stress.
Avoid erroneous use of medicine
Drug therapy is the core of hypertension treatment. The specific medication plan for hypertension patients should be formulated by doctors, and adhere to the medication according to the doctor’s advice. Some hypertensive patients have false cognition in the course of medication. The following are some common false cognition and alternative cognition.
“High blood pressure does not feel, you can not take medicine.” The damage of hypertension to the body is persistent. Whether to take antihypertensive drugs is not subject to feeling, but to the value of blood pressure.
“When you take your blood pressure medication, you become dependent and you can’t stop taking it.” Blood pressure medications themselves are not addictive and are taken to keep blood pressure under control to an ideal level, not to stop taking them. If you stop taking your blood pressure medication at will, your blood pressure will rise again and you need to take your blood pressure medication again.
“Blood pressure medications have side effects and should not be taken.” All antihypertensive drugs have side effects, but only a few patients will experience side effects after taking the drugs, usually not serious, and the side effects will disappear after adaptation or discontinuation. Moreover, the side effects of blood pressure drugs are far less than the damage to the body of high blood pressure.
“The sooner it depresses, the better.” Hypertensive speed too fast will cause the heart, brain, kidney and other important organs perfusion insufficiency, resulting in ischemia. Treatment usually takes weeks or months to bring blood pressure down to the target, depending on the patient’s condition.
“Take your blood pressure medication and you’ll be relieved.” You just take a pill and you don’t monitor your blood pressure and you don’t know if your blood pressure is well controlled. If blood pressure is not controlled to the ideal level after taking the drug, the harm of hypertension still exists; If hypotension occurs after taking the drug, it will also have an adverse effect on the body. Therefore, in addition to taking antihypertensive drugs, patients with hypertension should regularly monitor their blood pressure, especially when they are sick, they should first measure their blood pressure.
“It’s ok to eat foods or health care products that can reduce blood pressure. You don’t need to take blood pressure drugs.” Some foods or dietary therapies have some effects on blood pressure regulation and can be used as an adjunct to antihypertensive therapy, but they cannot replace antihypertensive drugs.