Hypertension is a clinical syndrome characterized by increased systemic arterial blood pressure (systolic and / or diastolic pressure) (systolic pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mmHg), which can be accompanied by functional or organic damage to heart, brain, kidney and other organs. Hypertension is the most common chronic disease and the main risk factor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
The blood pressure of normal people fluctuates within a certain range with the changes of internal and external environment. In the whole population, the blood pressure level gradually increased with age, especially the systolic blood pressure, but the diastolic blood pressure showed a downward trend after the age of 50, and the pulse pressure also increased.
In recent years, people have deepened their understanding of the role of multiple risk factors of cardiovascular disease and the protection of target organs of heart, brain and kidney, and the diagnostic criteria of hypertension are constantly adjusted. At present, it is considered that patients with the same blood pressure level have different risks of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, there is the concept of blood pressure stratification, that is, patients with different risks of cardiovascular disease, Appropriate blood pressure levels should be different.
The evaluation of blood pressure value and risk factors is the main basis for the diagnosis and formulation of hypertension treatment plan. The objectives of hypertension management are different for different patients. When facing patients, doctors judge the most appropriate blood pressure range according to their specific conditions on the basis of reference standards, and adopt targeted treatment measures.
On the basis of improving lifestyle, it is recommended to use 24-hour long-acting antihypertensive drugs to control blood pressure. In addition to evaluating the blood pressure in the consulting room, patients should also pay attention to the monitoring and management of family early morning blood pressure in order to control blood pressure and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.
About 60% of patients with hypertension have a family history. At present, it is considered that it is caused by polygenic inheritance, and 30% ~ 50% of patients with hypertension have genetic background.
Spiritual and environmental factors
Long term mental tension, excitement, anxiety, noise or adverse visual stimulation will also cause the occurrence of hypertension.
The incidence rate increased with age, and the incidence rate was higher in people over 40 years old.
Unreasonable dietary structure, such as excessive sodium salt, low potassium diet, heavy drinking and excessive intake of saturated fatty acids, can increase blood pressure. Smoking can accelerate the process of atherosclerosis and is a risk factor for hypertension.
Impact of drugs
Contraceptives, hormones, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs can affect blood pressure.
Impact of other diseases
Obesity, diabetes, sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome, thyroid disease, renal artery stenosis, renal parenchyma damage, adrenal space occupying lesion, pheochromocytoma, and other neuroendocrine tumors.