When people reach old age, the physiological functions of the body decline, aging faster than peers of the debilitating disease more and more. In terms of frailty, there may be a greater correlation with cardiovascular events in the elderly.
How to recognize weakness
Let’s first understand, how to simply determine whether an elderly person is suffering from debilitating disease? According to the International Gerontological Nutrition Society’s Deal scale, FRAIL can be determined when three or more of the following five items are met:
Table 1. Deal scale
1,Unexplained weight loss of more than 5% in the past year;
2,Feeling tired most of the time in the past 1 month;
3,Climb 10 steps, need auxiliary tools, or need to rest halfway;
4,It is difficult to walk a street of several hundred meters alone;
5,Identify at least 5 of the following conditions: hypertension, diabetes, congestive heart failure, stroke, angina, heart attack, cancer (except mild skin cancer), chronic lung disease, asthma, arthritis, kidney disease, etc.
It is important to note here that when one or two items are met, it is also likely to be a pre-debilitating condition.
A new study in the Journal of the European Society of Cardiology
In a new study published in the European Heart Journal, researchers at Johns Hopkins University assessed the association between fattening in general and the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and all-cause death in older adults.
The study included 3259 patients with no history of coronary heart disease or stroke from the NHATS study cohort funded by the National Institute on Aging. The mean age was 77.6 years, and the proportion of women was 60.7%. Fried phenotypic frailty scale was used for specific evaluation of patients, and they were divided into three groups: non-frailty group, pre-frailty group and frailty group.
Frailty was significantly associated with all-cause death and multiple cardiovascular events at 6-year follow-up. Fattening patients had a 77% increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events compared with non-fattening patients, including 95% increased risk of acute myocardial infarction, 71% increased risk of stroke, 80% increased risk of peripheral vascular disease, and 35% increased risk of coronary artery disease.
The risk of all-cause death was 2.7 times higher in frailty patients than in non-frailty patients.
Figure 1. Follow-up for 6 years, No weak group (black), the early stage of the weak group (yellow), weak (red) from patients with MACE1 (compound acute myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, coronary artery disease, or all-cause death), MACE2 composite (acute myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, coronary artery disease), in death, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral vascular disease (followed by A minus F) KM curve of
In addition, fattening patients had a significantly higher risk of all-cause death, coronary artery disease, and acute myocardial infarction in both smoking and nonsmoking subgroups.
This study was similar to a previous meta-analysis of the prevalence of fattening among the elderly in the community, which was around 16%. And in the relevant investigation of patients with cardiovascular disease in the elderly, the incidence of debilitating diseases can be as high as more than 20%, it is necessary to cause attention in the industry.
Prevention and treatment of debilitating disease
Frailty is also associated with an increased risk of other diseases, not just cardiovascular disease. Ok, so the question is, how do you prevent and treat frailty?
Speaking of prevention, a general one is that frailty positively affects the development of cardiovascular disease, etc. Conversely, if a person has pre-existing cardiovascular disease, etc., they are more likely to develop frailty than the average healthy person.
In fact, in order to prevent cardiovascular diseases, what we do in the aspects of diet, exercise, work and rest, psychology, etc. can also be applied to the prevention of frailty, but the prevention of frailty may be slightly focused on exercise and nutrition.
When it comes to treatment, it is the same as above. If you can treat and recover from other diseases that you are associated with, the debilitating illness will be almost half better. The rest is mainly multi-drug treatment and nutritional support under the management of multidisciplinary team of the hospital, as well as systematic rehabilitation training.
Finally, on social issues, frail elderly people who are lonely may also suffer from stressful events such as the death of a spouse or family member within a few months. At this time, more emphasis is placed on the care and companionship of children and relatives to reverse the debilitating condition.