Every year from April to September is the high incidence period of hand, foot and mouth disease. Before the arrival of the high incidence period, what should mothers do to keep their children away from hand, foot and mouth disease?
The main symptoms of hand, foot and mouth disease
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is more common in preschool children, and the incidence of HFMD is highest within the age of 4. Disease (HFMD) the main symptoms of the oral cavity ulcer, pain, bad breath, salivate, refus feeds, anorexia, dysphoria, low thermal or medium degree fever, pharyngeal hyperemia, tonsil visible rash, swelling, the brotherhood of the heart, for the first red maculopapule, soon to water herpes, rashes subside within a week, no legacy pigmentation, desquamation, or scar.
Because of the “water herpes” symptoms will let some parents mistakenly think it is chickenpox, often delayed the disease. In fact, the two diseases can be easily distinguished. Hand, foot and mouth disease usually has no rash on the rest of the body except the hands and feet, while chicken pox is generalized. The symptoms of HFMD vary depending on the severity of the disease.
Common case manifestations
Acute onset, fever, oral mucosa appeared scattered in herpes, hand, foot and buttocks appear maculopapular rash, herpes, herpes can have inflammatory halo around, less fluid in the blister. May be accompanied by cough, runny nose, loss of appetite and other symptoms. Some cases present only with rash or herpetic pharyngitis. More than a week in the recovery, after good. In some cases, the rash is atypical, such as a single site or a maculopapular rash.
Severe case manifestations
A small number of children (especially less than 3 years old) disease progress rapidly, 1-5 days after the onset of meningitis, encephalitis (brainstem encephalitis is the most dangerous), encephalomyelitis, pulmonary edema, circulation disorders, a small number of children in critical condition, can cause death, surviving cases can have sequelae. Severe children may present with nervous system involvement and acute circulatory respiratory failure, with a high incidence under 3 years of age.
The child has the following 4 conditions, it is recommended to seek medical attention as soon as possible
1,The child has persistent high fever
Persistent high fever, the temperature of 39℃ for more than 24 hours, or the child has been given antifebrile medicine but the temperature still does not drop significantly.
2,A sore throat prevents you from eating, leading to dehydration
Some children have obvious sore throat, drinking water and eating, leading to severe dehydration (deep-set eyes, chapped lips, listless).
3,Poor mental state when body temperature is normal
If the child’s body temperature returns to normal, or the spirit is very poor, such as drowsiness, a long time without eating, fidgety, even crying when there is no energy, it is recommended to take the child to the doctor.
4,Limb shaking, vomiting, convulsions, etc
Take your child to the hospital if he or she shows signs of jumping (limb shaking), muscle twitching or shaking, vomiting, skin flaring, or pallor.
How hand-foot-mouth disease is transmitted
1,Close contact among people is an important way of transmission. Children can be infected by touching hands, towels, handkerchiefs, dental cups, toys, tableware, milk sets, bedding, underwear, etc.
2,Viruses in children’s throat secretions and saliva can be transmitted through air (droplet), so close contact with sick children can cause infection.
3, drinking or eating contaminated water, food, can also occur infection.
To prevent hand, foot and mouth disease, that’s what you do
Take care to isolate sick children
There is no vaccine for hand, foot and mouth disease, and to avoid transmission, sick children should be isolated for at least a week. In addition, hand-foot-mouth disease is mainly transmitted through saliva, contaminated articles or food. Therefore, prevention of “disease from the mouth”, strengthening disinfection of daily appliances and isolation of patients are important measures to control the spread and epidemic.
Pay attention to hygiene: wash hands frequently, furniture pacifiers should be disinfected
In the season of HFMD epidemic, attention should be paid to personal hygiene and environmental hygiene of young children. As long as you master good personal hygiene, good hand washing, disinfection, ventilation, exercise, the virus will be away from you. Children’s toys should be washed frequently and dried in a sunny place before they can be played with.
Try not to go to places with large crowds
Avoid crowded public places, such as cinemas, parks, shopping malls, etc., to avoid cross-infection. To prevent hand, foot and mouth to do “wash hands frequently, often ventilated, drink boiled water, eat cooked food, drying clothes by” this 15-word formula.
In addition, it should be noted that children’s play places without strict disinfection measures, such as the sea ball, are not small risk of infection.
Experts said that because many children are still in an incubation period, that is, he does not have a rash, fever or symptoms, but he may have the virus, if the children go to play in the sea ball, other children must be at risk of being infected by him.
Timely vaccination of hand, foot and mouth vaccine
There is no vaccine for herpetic pharyngitis. Hand, foot and mouth can be vaccinated with the second-class EV71 vaccine, which provides more than 90% protection against enterovirus 71 (the most critical type 1) infection, and is an option for children between 6 months and 5 years of age.
Hand, foot and mouth disease care tips
1, because of children oral ulceration, pain, so the diet as light as possible, liquid food is the most appropriate, avoid eating hot and sour, hot and dry, greasy, indigestion.
2, pay attention to personal hygiene, keep the mouth clean, ulcer can be used to wipe the local light salt water, local spray throat wind powder or watermelon cream, etc. If oral mucosa ulcer is obvious, smecta powder can be sprinkled on the wound to promote local mucosal repair.
3, hand, foot and heart herpes can not be broken with unsterilized needle, should be subsided by its own, so as to avoid secondary infection. Can use calamine lotion with collect sore to stop itching, if herpes breaks the ulcerative person can use aureomycin eye ointment or 100 more state ointment liniment break the ulcerative place.
4, once the children appear chest tightness, shortness of breath, fatigue, sigh and other symptoms, should be alert to the existence of concurrent myocarditis, must be immediately to the hospital for diagnosis and treatment.
5, if the child suddenly vomiting, stiff neck, even limb convulsions, for the signs of concurrent central nervous system infection, should be treated in time, so as not to delay the condition.