The kidney is responsible for filtering impurities in the blood, maintaining the balance of body fluids and electrolytes, and finally producing urine, which is discharged out of the body through subsequent pipes. It can be said that it is one of the important “scavengers” of the human body. This important organ is a silent organ. Once something goes wrong, it is often fierce. Kidney disease is not only the familiar renal failure. The medical community roughly divides kidney disease into seven categories, making the kidney an organ with multiple lesions.
Kidney disease can be distinguished between congenital and acquired according to its etiology; According to the pathogenesis, it can be divided into primary and secondary, and according to the deterioration mode of various etiologies, it can be divided into acute and chronic.
Here are 7 kinds of kidney diseases that occur more frequently.
1、 Congenital kidney disease: inherited from parents, usually in adolescence. The most common is polycystic kidney disease, commonly known as “renal cyst”, which is that the renal tissue has cyst vesicles. If the vesicles are small, there is often no need for treatment, but only follow-up observation. If the vesicles are large and many, so that the kidney can not function normally, surgical treatment is required. Others include hereditary nephritis, congenital urinary tract abnormalities, congenital single kidney and other congenital nephropathy.
2、 Glomerulonephritis: commonly known as “nephritis”. Glomerulonephritis can be caused by bacterial and viral infection, or by abnormal immune system. Some of them can not find a clear cause. The common symptoms of patients are edema, hematuria, proteinuria or hypertension. All kinds of glomerulonephritis may progress to the stage of chronic renal failure. In, chronic glomerulonephritis is the most common cause of uremia.
3、 Pyelonephritis: pyelonephritis is divided into acute and chronic stages. It tends to occur in women. Most of them are infections caused by bacteria retrogradely invading the ureter and spreading to the kidney through the urethra and bladder. There are also cases of bacterial infection through the blood and lymph.
Patients with acute pyelonephritis will feel cold like symptoms such as low back pain, chills, fever and trembling. If the treatment is incomplete and recurrent, it will become chronic pyelonephritis and develop into the risk of renal failure. Typical chronic pyelonephritis is mostly developed from acute pyelonephritis. The patient’s symptoms are mild or asymptomatic, leading to renal failure and even life-threatening.
4、 Secondary kidney disease: deterioration of renal function caused by diseases other than the kidney. Diabetes, for example.
“Diabetic nephropathy”, “hypertension renal arteriosclerosis” caused by hypertension, gout nephropathy caused by gout and lupus nephritis caused by immune diseases. Among them, diabetes mellitus patients with 1/3 will eventually lead to uremic complications and even death, while renal arteriosclerosis is caused by kidney damage caused by impaired renal vessels in patients with hypertension. On average, about 1/5 of hypertensive patients will eventually lead to uremic complications.
As for lupus erythematosus nephritis, which is caused by systemic “lupus erythematosus”, about two-thirds of patients with lupus erythematosus will have the problem of renal invasion. Gouty renal disease is the so-called “hyperuricemia”, which is a disease in which the kidney crystallizes and accumulates in the renal parenchyma due to excessive uric acid in the blood, resulting in impaired renal function.
5、 Acute renal failure: a disease in which renal function deteriorates rapidly in a short period of time due to the disease of the kidney itself or external injury. Oliguria (less than 400 ml of urine a day), electrolyte disorder, significant increase in serum creatinine, hyperazoemia, etc. are all manifestations of acute renal failure. In case of acute renal failure, the mortality rate is very high. If treated in time, usually the renal function can return to normal, and a small number of people turn to chronic renal failure.
6、 Chronic renal failure and uremia: chronic renal failure refers to the gradual failure of renal function within a few months to years. The disease is based on the patient’s glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the course of the disease is divided into five stages. When the renal function declines to less than 10% of normal, the body has symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, dyspnea, pulmonary edema and heart failure, that is, the so-called uremia, which must be treated with dialysis, otherwise it will be life-threatening.
7、 Kidney stone: the cause is precipitation and crystallization due to the change of solubility caused by concentration and pH change of dissolved substances such as oxalic acid, phosphoric acid, uric acid and calcium ions in urine. Renal colic, low back acid, abdominal pain, hematuria, urinary tract infection and dysuria are all symptoms of kidney stones.