In our daily work, we often encounter the situation of the baby seeking medical treatment for allergy. Allergy has become a common problem that seriously troubles many parents. In order to help parents fundamentally understand allergies, learn to judge allergies, and be able to prevent and treat allergies, so today, I’m going to talk to you about allergies as a whole.
What is an allergy
An allergy is when the body’s immune system overreacts to natural, harmless substances in the air, water, contacts and food. The natural and harmless substances mentioned here, let me explain to you, for example, a kind of food, everyone can eat, eat nothing, only a few people, after eating, the body will appear unwell reaction. And after a few encounters, it always does. In other words, a food allergy is an immune-induced poor health condition caused by repeated exposure to a particular food.
What are the manifestations of allergies
Generally, allergies only affect surface organs, such as the outer surface is the skin, and the inner surface is the digestive tract and respiratory tract. After the child is allergic, the skin, digestive tract and upper and lower respiratory tract are the trilogy of changes in the entire allergic reaction. Some parents may make the mistake of thinking they are not allergic when the symptoms they first noticed disappear. It’s not. For example, the child first from eczema, eczema seems to be good for two days, but it may be after diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms, in fact, whether it is eczema or diarrhea, may be a series of manifestations of allergy, but not at the same time.
Clinical findings, particularly small infants, allergies to the skin and digestive tract as the main manifestations; Infants over the age of 1 May have more respiratory manifestations: between the ages of 1 and 3, the upper respiratory manifestations are predominant; After age 3, symptoms of the lower respiratory tract, such as asthma, predominate.
Types of allergies
We know that human B cells produce four main types of antibodies: immunoglobulin A, or IgA, immunoglobulin M, or IgM, immunoglobulin G, or IgG, and immunoglobulin E, or IgE. Immunoglobulin E is the main antibody in most allergic symptoms. According to the mechanism of occurrence, allergies can be divided into three categories: IgE mediated, non-ige mediated, and IgE – non-ige combined mediated.
IgE mediated type of allergy
In the IgE – mediated type of allergy, the response is usually acute and rapid. For example, it is mainly manifested with urticaria on the skin, when suffering from urticaria, the wind group comes quickly and goes quickly. The manifestations of the digestive tract are acute vomiting and acute diarrhea. A child may have a food allergy, and as soon as he puts it in his mouth, he spits it out. Sometimes parents do not understand the situation, will say how the child is so naughty, in fact, not naughty, but he is really uncomfortable. The first reaction of anyone who is uncomfortable with food is not to swallow it, but to spit it out.
But the parents do not understand the reason, they will think that the child just do not eat well, since the direct feeding does not eat, then poke smashed and mashed in other food. Then the diluted allergic food, may be in the oral cavity, the reaction is not big, but after swallowing, to the digestive tract, the child began to feel uncomfortable, and then there will be vomiting, diarrhea and other reactions.
The next step is to affect the respiratory tract.
In the upper respiratory tract for sneezing, runny nose, sometimes parents will be mistaken for a cold, feel that the child has a cold is not good or how to repeatedly appear ah, in fact, he did not know that this is probably not a cold, but allergy. It may also affect the lower respiratory tract, when the child will have asthma performance, bronchiolitis, asthmatic bronchitis, asthma and other diseases.
Non IgE mediated allergy
Having said that IgE mediated type of allergy, let’s move on to non-ige mediated allergy, and the research is not very clear what exactly is responsible for it. Non-ige mediated allergic manifestations are generally relatively slow, and reactions do not occur immediately after exposure to allergens. This allergy manifests itself on the skin as eczema. In the digestive tract, the baby may have reflux, vomiting or more bowel movements, more serious, stool may also be bloody.
Therefore, if the child has diarrhea, constipation, vomiting and other manifestations, as well as slow growth, accompanied by eczema, it is necessary to consider non-ige mediated allergies.
Why there is slow growth of this point, because just as we said, the process of non-ige mediated allergy symptoms will be slower, so when the parents found that the baby allergy time is not short, the damage to the body will be relatively long. So there has been an effect on growth and development rates.
Remind parents: if the baby appears suspected allergic symptoms, must take timely measures. For example, after adding a new food to the child, observe for three days, and stop adding if there is a problem; No problem, continue to provide.
Mixed IgE and non-ige mediated allergies
In fact, children with allergies, more often, is a mixture of IgE and non-ige mediated, but generally one of the main. Some children have gastrointestinal symptoms, some have respiratory symptoms, and some have skin symptoms. Need comprehensive, comprehensive consideration.
What causes allergies
Simply put, there are four main causes of allergies: early exposure, intestinal conditions, environmental factors, and genetic factors.
Early exposure to
Early exposure is that when the baby’s immune system is not perfect, the gastrointestinal tract is exposed to macromolecules too early, which will enter the blood through the underdeveloped intestinal wall and form sensitization, which may lead to allergies. So what are macromolecules? Milk protein, for example. This is what we often say, premature use of formula babies, prone to allergies, is because the baby’s gut early exposure to milk proteins such as large molecules. This is one of the reasons why it is particularly recommended that babies should be breastfed for the first time after birth and exclusively breastfed for at least six months, because breast milk does not contain the large molecular structure of milk proteins and therefore generally does not stimulate allergies.
The intestinal condition
From the birth of a baby, a large number of bacteria will enter the intestinal tract, such as breast-feeding, mother feeding, natural birth and so on mentioned above can provide probiotics for the baby to establish a perfect intestinal flora. However, in fact, some objective reasons cause these conditions cannot be achieved, coupled with the abuse of antibiotics, it may lead to the imbalance of the baby’s intestinal flora, without the good protection provided by the mucus layer formed by the intestinal flora, the food macromolecules will further stimulate the intestinal wall, and then lead to allergies.
In the use of disinfectants in the family, the child will inevitably be one of the ingredients inhaled or eaten into the body, disinfectants in killing harmful bacteria at the same time, will also eliminate beneficial bacteria, thus destroying the intestinal flora, the same reason, so that the baby’s intestinal wall lost effective protection, so it is easy to form allergies.
A child’s allergy to a particular substance is likely to be influenced by genetic factors, such as allergies in older members of the family.
How to diagnose allergies
Common skin tests are not 100% accurate, and blood draws can only check for IgE mediated allergies. Therefore, in addition to this value, it must be determined according to the child’s specific living conditions.
Avoidance and provocation tests are recommended for the diagnosis of allergies. For example, when you find a symptom and suspect that a child is allergic to a certain food, stop first to see if the symptom will improve. If it is really good, then try to contact again, if the symptoms appear after contact, then it can be determined that this food is causing the allergy.
How to Treat allergies
Basically, the opposite of treating allergies is avoiding the allergen. For food allergies, for example, the gold standard is food avoidance. Avoid food for at least three to six months before you have a basis to try again. The symptomatic treatment of allergies requires the use of hormones and antihistamines under the guidance of a doctor to relieve the discomfort caused by the allergy. More and more people now believe that probiotics can be helpful in the treatment of allergies.
If we use probiotic treatment, we should pay attention to several points: we need to choose suitable strains according to the condition of the baby’s intestinal flora, on the premise of determining the intestinal flora, according to the doctor’s guidance; Be sure to take sufficient doses of the strain. In addition, in addition to the above treatment methods, in view of the causes of allergies we mentioned earlier, parents should also pay strict attention in life. For example, reducing the use of disinfectants and rationally using antibiotics under the guidance of doctors.
Can I keep a pet if my child has allergies
Finally, let’s talk about whether we can keep pets. Are pets and baby allergies related in the home? That’s not necessarily true. Basically still see the specific condition of each family and baby physiology, psychology accept degree. It’s also important to note that if you have a pet, be sure to get regular vaccinations and keep it healthy.