In the eyes of ordinary people, the degree of terror of plague is far less than that of cholera and tuberculosis. But in fact, plague is at the top of notifiable infectious diseases in notifiable infectious diseases. What is the disease of plague? How does it spread? Are ordinary people highly likely to be infected? How to prevent the outbreak? Sort out 12 questions about plague for you.
Question 1: what is plague?
Plague is a natural animal disease caused by Yersinia pestis. It is prevalent among rodents and can occasionally cause human epidemics. Plague is characterized by acute onset, short course, high mortality, strong infection and rapid transmission. Especially for septic plague and pneumonic plague, if not treated, the fatality rate is 30%-100%. The incubation period of plague is relatively short, usually 1-6 days, but individual cases can reach 8-9 days.
Question 2: what are the types of plague?
According to the different routes of infection, there are two main types of plague: adenoid and lung type. These two types of plague can be cured if early diagnosis is made.
Glandular type is the most common plague type in the world, triggered by the bite of infected fleas. Yersinia pestis (Yersinia pestis) enters the body from the bite, invades the local lymph nodes through the lymphatic system, and propagate in the lymph nodes, causing inflammation, swelling and pain of the lymph nodes, which is called “inflammatory lymphadenoma”. In the late stage of infection, lymphadenitis may develop suppurative lesions and develop into open ulcers. Human transmission of bubonic plague is rare. Bubonic plague can further develop into the lungs. This type is called pneumonic plague, which is a more serious plague type.
Pneumonic or pneumonic plague is the fastest growing plague type with a latent period of up to 24 hours. Anyone infected with pneumonic plague can spread the infection to others through droplets. Pneumonic plague is fatal if it is not diagnosed and treated in time, but if it is detected and treated in time (within 24 hours of symptom onset), the cure rate is very high.
Question 3: what is the source of infection of plague?
Plague infection is caused by infected animal and plague patients. Animal and animal predators are commonly found in animal hosts, such as marmot, red marmot, marmot Himalaya and long tailed squirrel.
Question 4: how do people become infected with plague?
There are mainly two ways to spread plague.
1,the transmission way of fleas bites is rat fleas, which means biting flea bite rats, biting bites, or stripping infected marmots or stripping other infected animals. This transmission often causes bubonic plague or animal type plague.
2,person to person transmission mode, that is, healthy persons exposed to pneumonic plague, inhaled by respiratory tract infection, the main infection in this way is pneumonic plague.
Question 5: what are the susceptible populations of plague?
People are generally susceptible to plague. People engaged in field work in the epidemic area or hunters and herdsmen who hunt and peel marmots are more likely to contact infected animals, and the possibility of infection is higher than that of the general population.
Question 6: what are the symptoms after plague?
Typical symptoms are sudden fever, chills, headache and physical pain, weakness, nausea and vomiting. Bubonic plague can cause lymph node pain and inflammation. Symptoms of pneumonia shortly after infection (sometimes within 24 hours) are characterized by shortness of breath and cough and other severe respiratory symptoms, usually accompanied by bloody sputum.
Question 7: how should I protect myself from infection?
In order to prevent plague transmission, we should avoid close contact with coughs (within 2 meters) and reduce the stay time in crowded places. Do not touch dead animals in animal epidemic areas and use repellents.
Question 8: what if I suspect I am infected with plague?
If fever, chills, swollen lymph nodes or breathing difficulties, cough and / or blood phlegm occur suddenly, medical treatment should be sought immediately. Avoid self medication, including antibiotics, unless diagnosed by medical personnel.
Question 9: how was the plague diagnosed?
Medical staff diagnose according to symptoms. The diagnosis is based on laboratory test results of blood samples, sputum (liquid coughed up from the lung) or inflammatory lymph gland pus.
Question 10: how should plague be prevented?
Routine preventive measures are mainly to reduce the bite of infected fleas or minimize the possibility of exposure to plague patients.
1,Avoid traveling or activities in the epidemic area and contact with rodents (such as rats and marmots);
2,avoid contact with patients suffering from plague, contact with patients who may be infected with pneumonic plague, try to maintain contact distance with patients for more than 1 meters, and wear masks and wash hands frequently.
3,Take necessary anti flea bite measures and use insect repellents. Commonly used mosquito repellents can generally drive away fleas;
4,If you have been to the epidemic area, you should continue to take your temperature for 2 weeks. If you suddenly have any symptoms such as fever, chills, lymph node pain, cough, hemoptysis or bleeding, you should see a doctor immediately and inform the doctor of the travel history of the epidemic area. The effect of early antibiotic treatment is better.
5,people who are in close contact with plague patients should take preventive measures as soon as possible. Sulfonamide preparations can be taken. Adults take 2G for the first time and 1g for 4-6 hours. Generally, they take it for 5 days.
Question 11: how should plague be treated?
Timely antibiotic treatment can reduce the mortality of plague. If treated early, it can be cured. In the outbreak area of plague, symptomatic patients should be diagnosed and treated in the hospital. Patients with pneumonic plague must be isolated and treated by medical personnel wearing personal protective equipment and trained.
Question 12: is there any effect of self protection with wearing masks in the outbreak area of plague?
This depends on the degree of contact with the patient. People living in epidemic communities can wear masks according to their personal wishes, but they must use and handle masks properly to avoid becoming a source of infection due to improper use and handling of masks. Patients (reduce droplet transmission) and medical staff (protect themselves) correctly use masks can help reduce the spread of pneumonic plague.