In life, peripheral neuropathy is a common disease, and the incidence rate has been increasing in recent years. Peripheral nerve refers to the brain nerve, spinal nerve, autonomic nerve and its ganglion other than olfactory and optic nerve. Peripheral nerve disease refers to a disease that occurs primarily in the structural or functional damage of the peripheral nervous system. Patients will mainly have sensory disorders (sensory loss, sensory abnormalities), motor disorders (motor nerve stimulation and paralysis symptoms), stimulation symptoms, etc.
How is peripheral neuropathy caused?
The etiology of peripheral neuropathy is complex. Usually, some factors selectively damage different parts of peripheral nerve, resulting in corresponding clinical manifestations. Axonal transport system is of great significance in the pathogenesis of peripheral nerve.
When axonal lesions occur, the involvement of forward transport can lead to the disorder of cell membrane components and neurotransmitter metabolism at the distal end of axon; The involvement of reverse transport can cause axonal regeneration disorder and peripheral neuropathy, mainly due to the following factors:
It is often associated with or secondary to various acute and chronic infections, such as pharyngitis, tracheobronchia, pneumonia, dysentery, tuberculosis, infectious hepatitis, typhoid fever, mumps, etc.
2,Nutritional metabolic disorder
For example, B vitamins or folic acid deficiency, hypothyroidism, diabetes, uremia, chronic digestive tract diseases, liver diseases and pregnancy, etc., in addition, long-term smoking and drinking can also cause.
3,Toxic or pharmaceutical
Heavy metals (such as lead, arsenic, mercury, phosphorus, thallium, etc.), furans (such as shitelin), berberine, isoniazid, streptomycin, phenytoin sodium, carbamazepine, chemotherapeutic drugs (such as vincristine, etc.), hair dyes, organophosphorus pesticides and various chemical preparations.
4,Allergy, allergic reaction
Such as neuritis after serum treatment or vaccination, allergic reactions caused by various reasons, etc. it should also include various junction tissue diseases, such as lupus erythematosus, Sjogren’s syndrome, etc.
5,Various malignant tumors
Peripheral neuropathy is also very common. And the symptoms of peripheral neuropathy can appear several months before the clinical symptoms of the primary lesion, which should be vigilant.
6,Hereditary stress sensitive peripheral neuropathy
Clinically, it also has its characteristic symptoms, that is, it is easy to have numbness or / and weakness when a part is slightly compressed accidentally.
① Dyskinesia: flaccid paralysis, decreased muscle tension and muscle atrophy;
② Sensory disturbance: local numbness, burning pain, tingling, sensory hypersensitivity, lack of entity sense, etc;
③ Reflex disorder: tendon reflex weakened or disappeared;
④ Autonomic nerve dysfunction: local skin is glossy, red or cyanotic, without sweat, less or more sweat, rough and brittle fingernail (toe) and so on.
Peripheral neuropathy complications
1,Edema: lift the affected limb, compress with elastic bandage, massage and passive movement of the affected limb, hot compress, warm water bath, wax bath, infrared ray, electro-optic bath, ultrashort wave, short wave or microwave can be used to improve local blood circulation and promote the absorption of tissue edema or effusion.
2,Contracture: prevention is extremely important. In addition to the method of preventing edema, the affected limbs and joints should also be kept in the functional position. Triangular towel, splint, plaster support or other supports can be used for fixation or support, and attention should be paid to avoid compression on the part of sensory loss, so as not to cause new damage.
3,Secondary trauma: once trauma occurs, it is difficult to treat because the wound often has nutritional disorders. The parts that lose feeling shall be kept clean and protected regularly. The wound can be treated by ultrashort wave, microwave, ultraviolet, laser and other methods to promote wound healing.
Treatment of peripheral neuropathy
1,Drug therapy: general drug therapy is mainly used in the early stage of lesion;
2,Surgical treatment: surgical treatment is used for injuries that are ineffective and suitable or need surgical treatment;
3,Rehabilitation treatment: rehabilitation treatment should be carried out either in the early stage and recovery of peripheral nerve lesions or before and after surgical treatment.
The purpose of rehabilitation treatment is to eliminate or reduce pain, prevent and relieve muscle tendon contracture and joint stiffness, prevent muscle atrophy, enhance muscle strength, restore motor and sensory functions, and finally restore the patient’s living and working ability.
Nursing points of peripheral neuropathy
1,The activity of the affected limb and the perception of pain, temperature and other stimuli were observed; Observe the changes of muscle strength and muscle tension of the affected limb, and pay attention to whether there is muscle atrophy.
2,According to the general nursing and routine nursing of children’s rehabilitation; Ensure adequate rest, sleep and nutrition for children.
3,Supervise and assist children with passive exercise and muscle massage in bed; Guide sensory perception function training, select items of different texture (old towel, silk) and different warm clothes (cold water, ice, warm water) to stimulate the skin of the healthy side and the corresponding affected side respectively; Regularly measure the size of the affected limb to understand the treatment and recovery of the affected limb; Use more affected limbs in daily life activities to promote rehabilitation.
4,Guide family rehabilitation training programs and inform the necessity and importance of adhering to family training.
5,Pay attention to the protection of affected limbs and prevent re injury. Family care pays special attention to the prevention of burns and stabs.
6,Follow up regularly according to the doctor’s advice.
Prevention of peripheral neuropathy
1,Improve labor protection conditions and living conditions.
2,Pay attention to keep warm in winter and avoid getting cold in the wind and rain. Don’t be too cold in summer. Don’t keep the air conditioner on during sleep and the temperature is low.
3,During sleep, don’t let the outdoor wind directly blow to our heads, faces and limbs.
4,Prevent metal and pesticide poisoning.
5,Maintain a good state of mind, avoid excessive anger or depression, eliminate tension, excitement and other psychological states, and maintain a comfortable, open-minded and stable mood.
The above is about peripheral neuropathy. I hope it can help you. When your body is in trouble, you should go to a regular hospital in time to avoid missing the best treatment time.