Often, myocarditis improves on its own without treatment with complete recovery. Sometimes, treatment of the underlying cause (such as bacterial infections) can lead to complete recovery (for example, after antibiotics). Consequently, the diagnosis of the precise underlying cause of myocarditis can help in the optimal choice of treatment.
However, in patients with more prolonged or more severe cases of myocarditis, individuals may need more specific medications or even hospitalization. Medications to reduce the heart’s workload and/or reduce edema are commonly used to treat symptoms of myocarditis. They may include the following:
Lisinopril (Zestril, Prinivil)
Individuals with severe symptoms of myocarditis (heart failure, acute shortness of breath) may require other treatments such as IV medications and/or vascular assist devices (pumps that help a weak heart pump) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to help provide oxygen to the blood. Occasionally, patients may require a heart transplant. Individuals who develop very irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) may need an implanted pacemaker.
What is the prognosis (outlook) for patients with myocarditis?
The prognosis for patients with acute myocarditis who rapidly recover is very good. Even patients that develop severe myocarditis can completely recover with mild or no complications. However, if damage to the heart muscle becomes chronic and/or progressive, the prognosis for the patient declines. Those who develop severely weakened heart muscle cardiomyopathy have a poorer prognosis.