The weather turns cold in winter. Many diseases are more likely to occur at this time. They enter the high incidence season of myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction and pulmonary infarction. The treatment of these “stems” can not rely on luck. How to prevent and treat them? Come and see~
Myocardial infarction: myocardial infarction, also known as acute myocardial infarction, has acute morbidity, high mortality and a younger trend. When myocardial infarction occurs, more than half of people don’t know they are in a “fatal moment”.
Four bad habits can make heart attacks haunt young people
Excessive smoking: smoking can promote arteriosclerosis and increase the risk of myocardial infarction. On the other hand, smoking can cause coronary artery contraction and spasm, leading to vascular occlusion and myocardial infarction.
Overeating: the esophagus and stomach are close to each other. Excessive diet will lead to sharp contraction of heart blood vessels and spasm. If the rescue is not timely, life will be in danger.
Overwork: the incidence of young and middle-aged myocardial infarction is mainly mental workers, and some people don’t rest for a few days. This irregular and overworked life is very easy to lead to coronary artery spasm and induce myocardial infarction.
Too much pressure: the pace of life is fast, and the pressure of work and life tends to be concentrated together. When people are nervous, they will secrete a large amount of adrenaline, resulting in vasoconstriction, rapid heartbeat, rising blood pressure and excitement of sympathetic nerve, which is easy to cause myocardial infarction.
Myocardial infarction is more likely to occur in autumn and winter
The risk factors of myocardial infarction include hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and smoking. In addition, too little exercise, insufficient intake of vegetables and fruits, mental tension and overweight also have a certain impact. A famous worldwide study found that 90% of myocardial infarction can be prevented. If there is one or more risk factors, it should be prevented in advance.
It is particularly worth emphasizing that myocardial infarction is a multiple disease in winter, and most of them have a history of coronary heart disease. Fatigue, emotional excitement, satiety, cold and constipation are common causes. Therefore, the following points should be paid attention to in preventing myocardial infarction in winter:
Pay attention to increase or decrease clothes according to climate change, especially in winter.
Law of life, no smoking, moderate physical exercise.
Eat more fish, bean products and fresh vegetables. Don’t overeat and drink too much.
Control blood lipid and blood glucose. We should also prevent and treat various infectious diseases, constipation and diarrhea.
Maintain psychological balance and avoid excessive tension, excitement, anxiety, depression and other adverse stimuli.
What about sudden myocardial infarction? First aid for myocardial infarction needs three passes
The first pass is in the hands of the patient, and it is also the most critical pass. People with risk factors of myocardial infarction have symptoms of myocardial infarction such as chest pain. Once they get sick, they should stop any activity immediately, take 1 tablet of nitroglycerin under the tongue immediately, and call the emergency number immediately.
The second pass means that the emergency center quickly dispatched an ambulance to quickly transport the patients to the hospital with relevant treatment capacity.
The third pass is that after the patient comes to the hospital, the emergency department, cardiology department and other relevant specialists make rapid diagnosis and treatment, and strive to let the patient receive reperfusion treatment within 120 minutes of onset.
Cerebral infarction is a sudden disease, which is often aggressive. Although it mostly appears in the middle-aged and elderly, now with the change of young people’s living habits, cerebral infarction has also begun a younger trend. Cerebral infarction, also known as ischemic stroke, is ischemic necrosis of brain tissue caused by cerebral hemorrhage and hypoxia. Speaking of cerebral infarction, many people will think of hemiplegia, unclear speech, crooked mouth and eyes and other symptoms. As a disease with a high rate of human death and disability, how to find the cause and accurate treatment after discovering the symptoms is particularly important.
1,Large atherosclerosis: including thrombosis in the large artery, falling off of atherosclerotic plaque, leading to artery to artery embolism, blocking collateral vessels, leading to low perfusion of distal vessels, etc., forming cerebral infarction.
2,Cardiogenic embolism: as the name suggests, it refers to the blockage caused by the thrombus from the heart entering the cerebral vessels, resulting in cerebral infarction.
3,Arteriolar occlusion: refers to the occlusion of small blood vessels with a diameter of 100-200 microns. The causes include hypertensive arteriosclerosis, diabetic small vessel disease, arteriosclerosis of small perforating vessels, vasculitis, hereditary small vessel disease, etc.
4,Other definite causes: cerebral artery dissection, temporal arteritis, pulmonary arteriovenous fistula, fat embolism or air embolism during fracture or operation, blood clot or thrombus falling off during intravascular treatment, etc.
5,Unknown cause: about 10-20% of the patients can’t find the cause. According to previous studies, most of them are still mainly embolism.
Early symptoms of cerebral infarction
The early symptoms of cerebral infarction can be summarized as fast identification method:
Face: crooked mouth and tongue
Arm: numbness and weakness on one side
Speech: unable to speak or slurred
Time: if any of the above symptoms occur, please dial 120 quickly to enter the emergency channel and send it to a comprehensive stroke center that can both thrombolysis and thrombectomy
How to find the cause of cerebral infarction and accurately evaluate it?
When patients go to the hospital, they must first check the head CT to rule out intracerebral hemorrhage. This step is very important because the treatment methods of intracerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction are opposite. Then enter the clinical score. Generally, those with a score greater than 6 are often large vessel occlusion. At this time, it is necessary to urgently check the head and neck CT to clarify the location of vascular occlusion, the cause of vascular occlusion and the classification of cerebral infarction.
CT evaluation: suitable for patients with anterior circulation infarction and beyond time window infarction.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) evaluation: applicable to patients with posterior circulation infarction and beyond time window.
How to accurately treat cerebral infarction?Simple 3 words to prevent cerebral infarction
Eat: less oil and fried food. Prevent blood vessels from clogging and narrowing. Eat more vegetables, such as corn, tomatoes, cabbage, etc.
Exercise: more exercise can promote blood circulation, reduce vascular blockage and improve immunity. It can eliminate excess fat and reduce the risk of vascular blockage.
Heart: an optimistic attitude is the best medicine for all diseases. A good attitude can not only reduce diseases, but also improve immunity to some extent.
Many people know about myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction, but few know about pulmonary infarction. So, what’s the matter with pulmonary infarction? How does it happen?
What is pulmonary infarction?
Like the heart and brain, the lung also has countless blood vessels, large and small. If there are myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction, naturally there will be pulmonary infarction.
Pulmonary infarction is a very serious clinical critical disease. It is mainly due to pulmonary embolism caused by extrapulmonary emboli, such as thrombus, air and fat particles, which reach the pulmonary artery through the pulmonary circulation, and then cause pulmonary tissue bleeding and necrosis. As the name suggests, pulmonary artery infarction occurs, and the blood supply of the lung is reduced, which affects the function of the lung.
Patients can have a series of corresponding symptoms, including unexplained dyspnea, chest pain, cough, hemoptysis, etc. in severe cases, patients even die suddenly due to rapid respiratory failure or sympathetic reflex. Therefore, the danger of pulmonary infarction is no less than that of myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction.
Five common clinical symptoms of pulmonary embolism
(1) It is accompanied by crushing chest pain, sometimes similar to angina pectoris. The difference is that angina pectoris can be relieved after taking nitroglycerin, but not pulmonary embolism. In this case, you need to go to the hospital in time.
(2) Hemoptysis is often small, and a few patients can also hemoptysis in large quantities.
(3) Syncope. Exclude cerebrovascular disease, heart disease and hypoglycemia. If you suddenly faint, you should consider the possibility of pulmonary embolism.
(4) Cough, mostly dry cough.
(5) Palpitations, irritability, panic and even a sense of near death.
Harm of pulmonary infarction
As the main respiratory organ of the human body, the lung supplies the necessary oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide and other wastes. Once the lung tissue has a large-area infarction, it will lead to the respiratory failure of the human body, which will lead to the lack of oxygen supply, the disorder of metabolism, the functional failure of various organs of the human body due to the lack of sufficient oxygen supply, and finally the vicious circle will lead to death.
Therefore, especially in elderly patients with lung cancer, the blood viscosity is high, the blood flow is slow, and it is easy to form thrombus. The falling off of thrombus may lead to pulmonary infarction.
Therefore, try not to sit and lie for a long time. If patients need to stay in bed for a long time, they can often take deep breathing and move their lower limbs in bed (or with the help of family members) to prevent the formation of venous embolism.
How to stay away from venous thrombosis?
Avoid sedentary. Sit for about an hour and get up and exercise.
When taking a long-distance plane, most people will choose economy class. Due to the narrow space and limited leg activity area, deep venous thrombosis may occur. This situation is called “economy class syndrome”. Even if business class and first class do not take the initiative, venous thrombosis may occur, especially by long-distance bus and train.
It is suggested that when you need to travel for a long time, don’t wear tight underwear and relax the belt to avoid affecting the venous reflux; often stretch and hook your toes, stretch the muscles of large and small legs, and drink more water to dilute the blood and increase urination at the same time.
Don’t eat too greasy. Eat more low-fat and high fiber foods, such as cereals, Cereals, potatoes, sweet potatoes, beans, vegetables and fruits, so as to keep the stool unobstructed. Drink more water to dilute the blood.
Do not smoke. The harmful chemicals in tobacco will damage the intima of blood vessels, make blood cells more likely to agglutinate, and increase the risk of venous thromboembolism.
Patients with long-term bed rest and reduced postoperative activities need to turn over frequently and massage their legs under the guidance of doctors to promote blood flow. People with conditions can wear elastic socks and do pneumatic treatment to promote venous blood reflux of lower limbs.
Patients with hypercoagulable blood can be prevented from using anticoagulants under the guidance of doctors; for high-risk groups with thrombosis among relatives, annual vascular ultrasound examination is essential.
Reminder: massage is not recommended for patients who have found thrombus, otherwise they may aggravate their condition. People who like foot therapy and body massage should choose regular medical institutions or technicians who have received formal training to avoid serious consequences caused by thrombus falling off.