Elementary and middle school students, young, active, strong desire for personal expression, poor self-restraint, poor ability to identify right and wrong, self-protection, poor rescue ability. Doing a good job of safety for elementary school students is not only a top priority for school construction, but also a primary issue for millions of parents in the child-rearing process.12 kinds of first aid tips commonly used in life :
1, children’s burns when there is clothing attached to the affected area, to peel off the attachment. If the clothing is attached to the child’s skin, never forcefully tear off.
2, rinse with cold water to cool the affected area for about 15 minutes or use ice on the affected area.
3, Do not use any ointment or medicine to apply to the affected area, only cover all the affected area with sterile gauze to avoid infection.
4, Elevate the burned part of the child so that the blood flow to the affected area is reduced.
5, If the injury is more serious, lay the child flat on the bed and elevate the child’s lower limbs so that the child’s head tilts to one side to ensure blood flow to the vital organs inward and prevent the child from going into shock.
2. Bump injury
1, If the bruise is not very serious and there is no swelling or difficulty in moving the affected area, the child can apply a cold compress to the bruised spot of the skin for about an hour.
2, If the wound is bleeding, use a piece of sterilized cotton pad or toilet paper to compress the wound for more than ten minutes. If the wound is not large, after stopping the bleeding, wash the affected area with cold boiling water and cover the affected area with a band-aid.
3, if the wound is large, or the bruise may have tetanus bacillus, should immediately take the child to the hospital to treat the wound, if necessary, to inject tetanus antitoxin to prevent the occurrence of tetanus.
4, If the symptoms are serious, the affected area appears swollen or difficult to move, or the bruised part is the head or chest, especially if there is dizziness, vomiting, loss of consciousness, yellowish fluid or blood coming out of the ears and nose, the child must be sent to the hospital immediately.
Sprains occur when the ligaments around a joint are stretched too far beyond their capacity, and they are usually accompanied by bruising and edema. Within 24 hours of the sprain, try to apply cold packs every hour for half an hour. After 24 hours, the affected area will be replaced by a hot compress to promote blood flow to the injured area. Do not move the injured joint at will, otherwise it will easily cause ligament tears and recovery will be relatively difficult. If after a few days of self-treatment and rest, the affected area is still painful and difficult to move, then it may be a fracture, muscle strain or ligament rupture, and you need to go to the hospital immediately.
There are three levels of burns: first-degree burns cause redness and stinging sensation; second-degree burns cause visible blisters; and third-degree burns cause the skin to break down and turn black. Once a burn occurs, immediately place the scalded area under running water to rinse or use a cool towel to apply a cold compress, or if the burn is large, the injured person should immerse the entire body in a bathtub filled with cold water. Gauze or bandages can be wrapped loosely around the burn to protect it. Ice should not be used to treat burns, as ice will damage the broken skin and cause the wound to deteriorate. Do not break the blisters as this will leave scars. Do not apply antibiotic ointment or grease to the wound, as these sticky substances can easily get dirty. It is important to seek medical attention for third-degree burns, burns from electric shock and burns from chemicals. In addition, if the patient has a cough, watery eyes or difficulty breathing, professional medical help is needed. Patients with second-degree burns that are larger than the palm of the hand should also be seen in a hospital, where professional treatment can prevent scarring.
5. Cutting wounds
1, the wound is not deep, only cut skin a small amount of bleeding, just clean the affected area with water (or light salt water) and soap, disinfection with a band-aid or sterilized gauze to cover the affected area can be, so as to prevent wound infection. When cleaning the wound make sure that all the spoils are washed out from the wound.
2, Do not cover the wound with cotton or other lint-like material, as they will stick to the wound and prevent it from healing.
3, When dressing the wound, make sure the wound has good breathability and not too tightly wrapped.
4, Change the dressing once a day and expose the affected area to the air at night, which is beneficial to the wound healing.
5, When the wound is serious, send the child to the hospital quickly and ask the doctor to deal with it.
When children suffer from heatstroke, their body temperature increases up to 40℃ or more, with dry skin, flushed face, no sweating, dizziness, thirst, nausea, vomiting, irritability, and mental confusion. Some lose a lot of salt due to excessive sweating causing muscle aches and pains or even spasms, and in severe cases there can be convulsions, coma, drop in blood pressure, and skin bleeding.
The following should be done for children with heatstroke.
1, In case of heat stroke in children, use cold water, ice or alcohol to rub the body, or take a bath with warm water that is 3-5°C below body temperature. Or put ice packs in the armpits and groin of the affected child, and give the child into cold drinks to try to bring the body temperature down to below 38°C.
2, Try to lower the room temperature.
3, Let children drink more water. Children can be given Huo Xiang Zheng Qi capsules and other heatstroke medication.
4, Send the seriously ill to the hospital quickly for treatment.
7. Insects entering the ear canal
Insects and other biological foreign bodies often enter the external ear canal while children are sleeping. Insects can cause pain and unawareness in children due to crawling and stirring, and children may cry and become irritable.
The following should be done for children whose insects have entered the ear canal.
1, Use alcohol or oil-based liquid drops into the external ear canal to drown the insects that enter, then fix the child to make good use of ear tweezers to remove them, and then wipe the ear canal with cotton swabs.
2, If it is difficult to remove the insects by this method, they should be sent to the hospital immediately.
8. Foreign body in the eye
Any small object or liquid, even a grain of sand or a drop of detergent in the eye, can cause eye pain and even damage to the cornea. The first step is to blink hard and often to flush out the foreign body with tears. If that doesn’t work, pinch up your eyelids and rinse your eyes with water. Be sure to remove your contact lenses. You should not rub your eyes. Foreign bodies, no matter how small, can scratch the cornea and cause infection. If a foreign body enters deeper into the eye, it is important to seek immediate medical attention. If after self-treatment the eye is still uncomfortable, burning, edema or blurred vision, professional equipment is needed to treat the problem.
9. Foreign body in the nose
1, If a foreign body of animal origin enters the nose, it may be anesthetized with 1% dicaine and then removed with nasal pliers.
2, When a larger foreign body enters, it should be immediately sent to the hospital for emergency treatment.
Shock is a very dangerous symptom and can be fatal if the patient fails to receive timely treatment.
The following should be done for children in shock.
1, must try to get in touch with the hospital as soon as possible, or ask a doctor to come to the emergency.
2, Let the child lie flat. Except for those with head trauma, pay attention to let him take the head low and feet high position to increase the brain with sufficient blood supply, otherwise, once the brain is deprived of oxygen for 3-4 minutes, it will cause permanent damage to the brain.
3, pay attention to ensure that the child’s airway is open. Never give children hot compresses because it will make the blood flow out of the organs in the body rapidly and cause danger.
4, Always check the child’s pulse and pay close attention to changes in the child’s condition.
Convulsions are a sudden onset of symptoms caused by abnormal brain reactivity, where the patient has a short period of generalized convulsions or localized limb twitching. The child may cry loudly before the onset of convulsions, followed by loss of consciousness, generalized purple coloring, and simultaneous breath-holding, followed by rhythmic flexion and shaking of the extremities a few seconds later, possibly accompanied by incontinence. This symptom may last for several minutes.
The following should be done for a child with convulsions.
1, Have the child lie flat on his back with his head on one side to prevent backward tongue drop and regurgitation of oral secretions that may block the trachea.
2, Fill a towel or handkerchief between the upper and lower teeth to prevent biting the tongue.
3, Give physical cooling to the head.
12. Misuse of drugs
Misuse of drugs in children can be manifested as: burning sensation, chest tightness, panic, pale face, purple lips, difficulty in breathing, drop in blood pressure, or even coma within seconds or minutes after the drug is administered. Fixed erythema (purplish-red round or oval, often with central colonization) with fever within minutes or hours of drug administration. Sudden onset of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, drowsiness and other symptoms.
The correct treatment principles are: rapid discharge, reduction of absorption, timely detoxification, and symptomatic treatment.
Have you memorized the above twelve kinds of first aid? Once a child has any problem, we must understand what kind of emergency is the best way! Of course, child safety is important in prevention, so that children grow up safely and happily.