Among the self-conscious symptoms of cancer patients, the incidence of pain is the highest. At least 40% of patients with the disease condition are accompanied by pain. At least 80% of patients with advanced cancer have moderate to severe pain. According to the statistics, 2.5 million people die worldwide in the first year because of untreated cancer pain. Every day, 3.5 million people in the world are suffering from cancer pain. Pain is not only detrimental to the treatment of pain. It also adds to the patient’s suffering. It obviously reduces the survival quality of patients.
1.Update on the concept
The awareness, attitude and expectation of medical staff, patients, public and family members towards pain as well as the treatment and care of pain have changed dramatically in the past 30 years. Now, the pain problem of cancer patients has been highly valued by people from all walks of life. The new concept of decisively taking various therapeutic measures for cancer pain patients to relieve their pain, improve their survival quality and prolong their lives has gradually replaced the traditional concept in cancer pain treatment.
However, many experts believe that the main problem preventing effective pain relief is not only the nurses’ lack of understanding of pharmacological effects, but also the lack of awareness of the quality of human life and the nature of nursing work itself. There is a widespread fear among doctors and nurses that patients will reproduce psychological dependence, and even among patients themselves and their families. The “four reluctances syndrome” is present: doctors are reluctant to prescribe adequate amounts of pain medication, pharmacies are reluctant to issue adequate amounts of medication, nurses/families are reluctant to give adequate amounts of medication, and patients are reluctant to receive adequate amounts of pain medication. Therefore, the treatment of cancer pain requires not only the update of medical personnel’s understanding, but also the cooperation of patients and their families, especially the collaboration of patients’ families.
2.Role of family members
It is undeniable that most cancer patients stay in hospital for treatment, but after all, a considerable part of cancer patients also spend time at home. Therefore, in the treatment of cancer pain, family members also have a very important responsibility. These include: 1. correctly and reliably assessing the patient’s pain and assisting the medical staff in formulating a reasonable treatment plan. The patient’s pain assessment includes the degree, location, nature, attack and complications of pain. In addition to physical factors, family members must pay attention to psychological, social and economic factors when assessing the patient’s pain.2. Give accurate and timely medication and observe the effects and side effects of pain medication.3. Provide comfort, explanation and encouragement to the patient so that he or she can get rid of the fear of pain and increase hope for life.4. Educate and explain to the patient to change his or her misconceptions about the side effects and tolerance of medication. Encourage the patient to enjoy human dignity and human rights.
3.The tasks of family members
In the process of cancer pain treatment, the role played by family members cannot be underestimated, and they need to accomplish a lot of care work. Therefore, they must also understand and master the scope of nursing activities.
1、Understand the basic principles of cancer pain treatment: (1) Do master the dose and application range of some effective and major pain control drugs. (2) Pain medication heart may be taken orally, followed by, rectal medication, and finally, injection is chosen. The use of drugs should follow the principle of from small to large, from less to more, and observe the efficacy and side effects. (3) The drug should be administered regularly according to the off-life of the drug, and should be administered 1h before the previous drug effect disappears, so as not to add pain to the patient and increase the drug dose.
2、Explain to the patient the effect of receiving treatment, help the patient understand the cause of pain, the drugs taken and the time to take the drugs tell the patient why they must take the drugs on time and the possible side effects of the drugs and their prevention and control.
3、Help the patient to use the medication correctly and choose the appropriate medication and medication method according to the patient’s condition. When administering medication, consider the duration of the drug effect and the patient’s living habits, and try to avoid administering medication when the patient is at rest.
4、Evaluate the effect of treatment methods on reducing pain, report to the doctor in time and make reasonable suggestions to enable timely adjustment of the treatment plan.
5、The prevention and control of side effects. For example, aspirin can stimulate the stomach, destroy the gastric mucosal barrier and cause bleeding, and reduce prothrombin leading to systemic bleeding tendency, etc.
6、Pay full attention to the overall pain relief in the process of cancer pain care, which not only includes giving medication, but also creates a comfortable environment for the patient and helps the patient to get a comfortable position, etc. The family members need to help the patient overcome the fear and anxiety that come with cancer pain with the relevant technology and psychological knowledge.
Specific methods of home care
In family treatment, for cancer patients with long duration of illness and mild pain, psychotherapy and physical therapy should be adopted to relieve pain.
1、Psychological suggestion therapy: This method is mainly to enhance patients’ confidence in overcoming the disease. It can be combined with various cancer treatment methods to imply how the patients can regulate themselves and tell them how to cooperate with the treatment so that they can definitely overcome the disease, so that they can enhance their courage to live, complete three meals a day and carry out necessary rehabilitation training to fully mobilize their own maximum ability to destroy cancer cells, so as to achieve the purpose of pain relief.
2、Relaxation pain relief method: relaxation of the whole body can lighten the feeling and muscle relaxation can block the pain response. You can ask the patient to close the eyes, sigh and snort, then bend the hip and knee and lie down, relax the abdominal muscles and back muscles, and slowly take abdominal breath. Or ask the patient to do deep and slow inhalation and exhalation with eyes closed in a quiet environment, so that the fresh air can enter the lungs and achieve the purpose of pain relief.
3、Physical pain relief method: The pain can be relieved by stimulating the skin around the pain or the corresponding healthy side. Stimulation methods can be used to massage, apply cool painkillers, etc., and can also be used to stimulate various temperatures, or use a 65 ℃ hot water bag on a wet towel as a local hot compress for 20 minutes each time, which can achieve a certain effect of pain relief.
4, transfer pain relief method: you can let the patient sit on a comfortable chair, close the eyes, think back to their childhood fun, or think about anything they want to think about, 15 minutes each time, usually 2 hours after eating, afterwards to sit in silence for 2 minutes with eyes closed; also according to the patient’s hobby, choose to play some fast sound music, let the patient enjoy while clapping, clapping and other actions with the rhythm; you can also let the patient read some You can also let the patient read some jokes, humorous novels, and tell a comic music. All these can achieve the purpose of pain relief by transfer.
In conclusion, family members facing cancer pain patients should not add pain to them or let them struggle in pain, but keep improving methods to reduce patients’ pain. At the same time, they should also keep asking doctors and nurses for advice and books to try to reduce the pain for the patients and cooperate with them for the survival rate of cancer patients’ treatment and care.