First aid at home
Accidental injuries are very common in daily life. If residents have certain knowledge of first aid and can carry out effective first aid measures for the injured at the first time, there is a chance to avoid further deterioration of the condition and even turn the crisis into a safe one. The popularization and training of daily first aid knowledge is an important task of GP service.
Key points of home first aid
In case of emergencies such as fainting, bleeding, cardiac arrest, etc., stay calm and call 120 emergency number at the first time. When calling for help to the emergency center, inform the patient’s condition, site environment, detailed location, etc. to facilitate the ambulance personnel to arrive at the scene in time to implement first aid. Before the ambulance arrives, you can use the first aid knowledge you have learned to carry out on-site rescue.
2、Judging the conditions of first aid at the scene
The first task of first aid is to take the injured person away from the place where the risk factors exist.
3、Accurate judgment of the condition
First of all, observe the patient’s heartbeat, respiration, pulse, and consciousness, and in order of urgency, take first-aid measures immediately for the injured with hemorrhage, abnormal respiration, cardiac arrest, and unconsciousness.
4、Do not move the casualty at will
When the surrounding environment is safe and the condition of the injured person is not clear, the rescuer should not move or push and shake the patient at will, the correct treatment is to save the patient in place and wait for the arrival of the doctor.
5、Do not use drugs or give diet indiscriminately
Some residents mistakenly believe that the fainting time with water and other ways to make the casualty relief, in fact, this practice is not desirable, for coma patients are strictly prohibited to instill food, otherwise it is easy to cause choking and coughing, and even suffocation.
6、Let the patient maintain the correct position
For awake patients, the most comfortable position can be given, such as heart failure patients should be given a semi-recumbent position, for acute colic patients can be bent knee position. For comatose patients, let them lie down and keep their heads to the side to reduce the incidence of aspiration pneumonia.
Common family first aid
Patients often have local swelling, restricted movement, ecchymosis, pain, deformity, etc., and shock may occur in serious cases. Home first aid for fracture: first determine the fracture site, type and the presence of complications. Home treatment mainly includes: initial fixation, braking and transfer.
If there is no professional fixation equipment at the scene of first aid, you can use such as wooden boards, bamboo branches, or other household items as fixation equipment, and fixation must fix the upper and lower joints of the fracture; if it is a closed fracture of the distal extremity, you can fix it locally and wait for the doctor to deal with it or send it to the hospital; if it is a fracture of the trunk or other organ injuries, you should call the emergency number immediately and cannot move the patient casually.
Common causes are epilepsy, hysterical convulsions, tetanus, rabies attacks, etc.
First aid at home during seizures.
(1) Find and deal with the cause and triggering factors of convulsions in time.
(2) Protect the patient: remove obstacles around the patient to avoid secondary injury.
(3) Protect the respiratory tract: remove oral secretions and tilt the patient’s head to the side.
(4) Transport: Send the patient to hospital for treatment in time.
Hemoptysis refers to bleeding from the trachea, bronchus or lung tissue below the larynx, and blood is expelled from the mouth through coughing action. The causes of hemoptysis include infection, tumor, cardiopulmonary vascular disease, foreign body, trauma, drugs, etc.
Principles of hemoptysis management: stop bleeding quickly, keep the airway open, correct shock, and actively treat the original disease. For small amount of hemoptysis (bleeding volume less than 100 ml), reduce the activity and seek medical attention immediately. Medium or large amount of hemoptysis must be immediately bed rest, with the patient lying on his side and head in a low position, while calling 120 emergency number for transfer to hospital.
3、Carbon monoxide poisoning
Carbon monoxide is a colorless and odorless gas. When carbon monoxide is inhaled into the body, it will cause respiratory difficulties and cause oxygen deprivation and even death.
Family first aid: quickly move the patient to a ventilated place, breathe fresh air, oxygen therapy if available and pay attention to warmth, for those with impaired consciousness should be immediately transferred to the hospital for treatment, before the arrival of the ambulance, if the patient appears cardiac arrest should immediately carry out cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Family first aid: cut off the power supply and protect the injured to a safe place for rescue under safety protection. For patients with cardiac arrest, CPR should be performed immediately and contact the hospital for emergency treatment!
Clinically, there are drowsiness, lethargy, light coma and deep coma.
Family first aid: call 120 immediately; understand the patient’s original illness, keep the patient’s airway open, do not move easily for cases of hemorrhage, brain hernia, cervical fracture, etc.; before the emergency vehicle arrives, if the patient is in cardiac arrest, perform CPR immediately.
1,Can a tourniquet be tied for a long time?
The tourniquet should be relaxed for 2 to 3 minutes every hour, and once every 30 minutes in cold temperature, and keep records to prevent ischemic necrosis of the distal limb caused by prolonged ligature.
2, can patients with cardiogenic asthma rest flat on their backs?
Laying flat will increase pulmonary stasis and heart burden, making asthma worse and life-threatening, and should be taken in a semi-recumbent position so that the lower limbs are in a drooping position.
3,Can patients with cerebral hemorrhage drive themselves to the hospital?
Patients with cerebral hemorrhage should not be moved at will, and moving at will will aggravate the bleeding, so they should seek help from hospital emergency professionals to send them to the hospital.
4,Can small and deep wounds be simply bandaged at home by themselves?
You should go to the hospital to clean and disinfect the wound and then dress it, and if necessary, inject tetanus antitoxin.
5, rescue electrocution can be unarmed?
Immediately after the discovery of electrocution cut off the power supply, and immediately use dry wooden sticks, bamboo poles and other insulators to drain the wire, the surrounding environment is not sure of the safety should seek professional help.
6, see the casualty fall to the ground should immediately implement CPR?
CPR should be performed before determining whether cardiac arrest. If the initial judgment of a cervical fracture, do not move the casualty before the arrival of professional emergency personnel.
Pre-hospital emergency care is one of the components of the Emergency Medical Services System (EMSS), which refers to the medical care of emergency, critical and severe patients before they reach the hospital. Timely pre-hospital emergency care can effectively reduce early death and late complications of patients.
The causes of early death of patients are mostly cardiac accidents, hemorrhage, shock, respiratory failure and other serious conditions, which will directly endanger patients’ lives if they are not treated properly or timely in the early stage, and many serious complications such as systemic inflammatory response syndrome, acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure may occur in the later stage of treatment. Therefore, correct and timely pre-hospital emergency care is crucial. Residents should have the opportunity to learn more about first aid in their daily lives.