Alcoholic intoxication (acute)), the acute poisoning symptoms after drinking an excessive amount of alcohol (ethanol) products in a short time, that is, the state of “drunk” or “drunk”, showing dizziness, fatigue, excitement, euphoria, vomiting, drowsiness, coma, and even death. According to statistics, about 15 ~ 20 million people drink alcohol all over the world. Drunkenness is not only harmful to the body, society and family, but also causes a variety of diseases, which has attracted extensive attention in medicine, psychology and society.
Physiology of alcoholism
Baijiu wine contains 45 to 60% ethanol, 15 to 20% of yellow wine, 10 to 15% wine, 40 to 43% brandy, and 3 to 5% beer. After drinking alcohol, ethanol is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and small intestine. It can be found in the blood in 5 minutes, reaching the highest concentration in 30 ~ 90 minutes, and distributed in all parts of the body, including cerebrospinal fluid, urine and alveolar gas. A small amount is discharged from urine, sweat and exhalation in its original form, and more than 90% is metabolized in the body (mainly in the liver). Ethanol generates acetaldehyde under the catalysis of ethanol dehydrogenase in hepatocyte cytoplasm, and then acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in hepatocyte mitochondria catalyzes to generate acetic acid, which enters the tricarboxylic acid cycle to generate acetyl coenzyme A and carbon dioxide.
Tolerance to alcohol varies from person to person. Very few people have congenital alcohol dehydrogenase deficiency and are particularly sensitive to alcohol. After drinking, due to the decrease of NAD (oxidized coenzyme I), the increase of NADH (reduced coenzyme I) and the change of NAD / NADH ratio, it can cause Lactatemia, uricemia, hypoglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia, and inhibit the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the body.
Acute alcoholism can be divided into three stages:
① Excited period: flushed or pale face, conjunctival congestion, euphoria and excitement, endless conversation, out of control behavior, irritable, happy, sad, emotional, often nausea and vomiting.
② Ataxia period: the performance is clumsy, staggering, unstable gait, ambiguous language and causing trouble.
③ Sleeping period: pale complexion, cold and wet skin, blue lips, slow breathing, snoring, hypothermia, from restlessness to lethargy or coma, incontinence of urine and urine, until death due to inhibition of respiratory and circulatory center. A few patients with acute alcoholism died of asphyxia or aspiration pneumonia due to drowsiness and vomiting.
Diagnosis: according to drinking history, breath and vomit have alcohol taste, and clinical symptoms. However, for comatose patients, other causes of coma must be excluded.
Generally, there is no need for special treatment. Stay in bed and pay attention to keeping warm. You can recover by yourself. Patients with severe poisoning symptoms can be induced to vomit (apomorphine is prohibited), and gastric lavage with 1% sodium bicarbonate can be used if necessary. Inhalation pneumonia should be prevented during this period. For those who are agitated or over excited, a small dose of diazepam can be used to avoid the use of morphine, chlorpromazine and phenobarbital sedatives. 100ml of 50% glucose was injected intravenously and 100mg of vitamin B1, vitamin B6 and nicotinamide were injected intramuscularly to accelerate the oxidation of ethanol in the body.
Naloxone is a specific antagonist of opioid substances. Naloxone can quickly penetrate the blood-brain barrier and bind to opioid peptide receptors, resulting in the inactivation of opioid peptides and relieving the inhibitory effect of opioid peptides on cardiovascular system and nervous system; It can inhibit the release of oxygen free radicals, stabilize the liver lysosomal membrane and other non opioid receptors, wake up the disturbance of consciousness, promote the transformation of ethanol in vivo and reduce the concentration of ethanol in blood. In case of complications such as respiratory failure or brain edema, corresponding symptomatic and supportive treatment should be given. In patients with severe poisoning, peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis can be used to promote the excretion of ethanol from the body.
Sudden death caused by alcoholism occurs from time to time. Emphasis: the drunk must lie on one side of his head. If he lies on his back, vomit may fall directly into the trachea, resulting in suffocation and death.
Alcohol dependence and chronic alcoholism caused by long-term heavy drinking not only have a bad impact on their body, nervous system and psychological state, but also affect family relations, husband wife relations, but also bring a series of work and social problems. Abstainers should drink more water, eat more green leafy vegetables and don’t drink carbonated drinks.
The state explicitly ordered to quit smoking, but for drinking, it just said to limit drinking, because a small amount of drinking is still helpful. But don’t drink.
Avoid drinking on an empty stomach: drink a glass of milk or yogurt or eat a few pieces of bread before drinking. Don’t drink on an empty stomach to avoid stimulating gastric mucosa. What abstinence drugs have a good effect? The choice of abstinence drugs is very important. We must choose good abstinence drugs.
Baijiu boiling water: drink liquor, drink plenty of boiling water, so as to facilitate the alcohol as soon as possible with urine excreted; When drinking beer, go to the toilet frequently; It’s best to drink spirits with ice.
Avoid heavy drinking: don’t drink too fast or too hard. Drink slowly to give the body time to decompose the ethanol in the body. A few glasses of fine wine or a mouthful of stuffy wine on the wine table is easy to get drunk
Eat more green leafy vegetables: when drinking, eat more green leafy vegetables, in which antioxidants and vitamins can protect the liver. It is very important to choose which method to quit drinking and how to quit drinking. There are many ways to quit drinking. The key is to choose the right way to quit drinking.
Do not drink carbonated drinks: do not drink carbonated drinks, such as coke and soda, so as not to speed up the body’s absorption of alcohol.