First aid for drowning is also important when ashore

alopah Date:2021-08-30 11:39:09
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After the drowned person is rescued ashore, if he is unconscious, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, etc., measures shall be taken immediately for on-site first aid, and then transferred to the hospital for rescue. First aid is timely and the method is correct. Sometimes it can even turn the almost hopeless drowning into safety. However, if the best first aid opportunity after landing is delayed, the whole life-saving work may be wasted. The purpose of shore first aid is to quickly recover the breathing and heartbeat of a severely drowned person.


The steps of first aid for drowning are as follows:


1,After removing the impurities in the mouth and nose, it is necessary to untie the clothes and belts of the drowning person and dry the body, remove the mud, weeds, bubbles and vomit in the mouth and nose, so as to keep the upper respiratory tract unimpeded. If there are movable dentures, they should be taken out so as not to fall into the trachea. If there is an obstruction in the throat of the drowning person, turn the drowning person’s face downward and pat the obstruction out of the trachea with a hard pat on his back. If the drowning person’s teeth are closed and his mouth is difficult to open, the lifesaver can push forward with his thumb against the drowning person’s mandibular joint, pull down his mandible with his index finger and middle finger, and break his mouth. In order to prevent the open mouth from closing again, a small wooden stick can be placed between the upper and lower gums of the drowning person.


2,Empty water. After the above treatment, the water entering the respiratory tract, lungs and abdomen of the drowning person shall be discharged. This process is “empty water”. A common method is that the lifeguard kneels on one leg and bends the other leg, puts the abdomen of the drowning person on the bent leg, then holds the head of the drowning person with one hand so that the mouth faces down, and presses the back of the drowning person with the other hand to discharge the water.


First aid for drowning


3,Artificial respiration: artificial respiration is a key step for the drowned person to resume breathing. It should be implemented as soon as possible without losing the opportunity, and do not give up efforts easily. It should be insisted that the drowned person fully recovers normal breathing. In practice, many people recover after hours of artificial respiration. The rhythm of artificial respiration is about 15 ~ 20 times / min.


The commonly used artificial respiration method is mouth-to-mouth blowing method: place the drowning person on his back and flat on the ground, pad some clothes under his neck, and tilt his head later to straighten the respiratory tract. The lifeguard knelt down on the side of the drowning person, pinching the drowning person’s nose with one hand and holding his jaw with the other hand. After taking a deep breath, close the mouth of the drowning person with your mouth (all sealed, no air leakage) and blow to expand his chest. After about 1500ml (more adults and less children) of air is blown in, the mouth and the hand pinching the nose are released at the same time, the chest of the drowning person retracts under the action of elasticity, and the gas is discharged from the lungs. If necessary, the lifeguard can gently press the chest of the drowning person to help him exhale. This is done over and over again. When the human body breathes normally, oxygen accounts for about 21% and carbon dioxide accounts for about 0.04% in the fresh air. After gas exchange in the alveoli, the oxygen content in exhaled gas decreased, but still accounted for about 16%, and the carbon dioxide content increased to about 4.4%. Therefore, during mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration, there is still more oxygen in the gas blown by the lifeguard, which can be used by the drowning person. In addition, due to the high content of carbon dioxide in the blown out gas, it will stimulate the respiratory system of drowning people and promote them to restore natural breathing.


4,Extrathoracic heart massage method: after rescuing the drowning person ashore, if it is found that the heart beat of the drowning person has stopped or is extremely weak, the extrathoracic heart massage shall be performed immediately, and the heart shall be squeezed to contract and relax and restore the blood pumping function. The combination of extrathoracic cardiac massage and artificial respiration is an important means to save the lives of drowning people who have not yet died, so as to restore their autonomous heartbeat and breathing.


The specific method of extrathoracic heart massage is: lay the drowning person on his back and flat on the ground, the lifeguard rides and kneels on both sides of the drowning person’s thighs or beside him, the two palms overlap, and the palm root is pressed at the lower end of the drowning person’s sternum (for children, only one palm is needed; For infants and young children, only three fingers are needed), the arms are straight, the body is tilted forward, the weight of the body is used to steadily press down, and the pressure is concentrated on the palm root, causing the sternum of the drowning person to sink about 3-4 cm. Then, the upper body recovers and quickly relax the hands, but the palm roots are not out of position.


It is carried out in such a rhythmic way, about 60-80 times per minute. When pressing down, the force should be uniform, not too hard, and let go quickly. Extrathoracic heart massage also requires patience and perseverance. Sometimes it takes hours of unremitting efforts to bring the drowning back to life. The combination of extrathoracic heart massage and mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration is that if two people cooperate with rescue, one person will do extrathoracic heart massage and the other will do mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration; If there is only one person to rescue, blow one breath, do 5-8 heart compressions, and then blow again.

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