First Aid Guide for Severe Allergic Reactions: Netizens call this a textbook allergy self-help method. It answers 15 clinical questions on the diagnosis, treatment preparation, treatment measures and post-treatment management of severe allergic reactions, and forms a total of 26 recommendations. The following is a general description of the first aid process.
Detection of allergy
Call 120, stay away from allergens, lie down
Some people feel unbearable itchy skin after eating fish, shrimp, crab and other foods; some people develop rhinitis or asthma after inhaling pollen; some people go into shock and die after taking drugs. These are all signs of allergic reactions. Once you have reactions such as itching, redness, pimples, nasal congestion, nosebleeds, breathlessness, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and poor urination after eating or taking medication, you must not take it lightly, because these, manifestations may be the appearance of an allergic reaction.
During emergency treatment
Epinephrine is the drug of choice for severe allergies
Once the allergic person is transferred to the hospital, the resuscitation process will be fast. From cutting off the allergen to injecting epinephrine to injecting other drugs, and then to finish the post-emergency monitoring, the hospital will have a set of scientific and rigorous emergency operation process. In this process, doctors need to give individualized disposition plans according to different conditions in a short time, which is full of challenges and tests.
When the treatment is successful, the recommendation suggests that it should be monitored in the hospital for at least 12 For patients with severe allergic reactions of grade II and above, epinephrine is the drug of choice for treatment. The recommendation states that epinephrine should be administered as soon as possible after the patient is diagnosed with a grade II or higher severe allergic reaction.
Intramuscular injection of epinephrine should be preferred for patients with grade II and III reactions. Intramuscular injection of epinephrine may also be considered for patients with grade I reactions in which gastrointestinal system symptoms are difficult to relieve. The injection site is the mid-lateral thigh.
Intravenous epinephrine should be administered to patients with grade IV reactions who have experienced or are about to experience cardiac and/or respiratory arrest. Subcutaneous epinephrine is not recommended in the emergency treatment of severe allergic reactions.
There is no absolute contraindication to the use of epinephrine in the emergency treatment of life-threatening severe allergic reactions; however, it should be used with caution on balance in patients with a history of cardiovascular disease and in elderly patients.
In addition, in the application of other drugs, the recommendations point out that H1 receptor antagonists can be used as second-line drugs for the treatment of severe allergic reactions, mainly for the relief of skin and mucosal symptoms, and not as rescue drugs.
Patients with grade I reactions can be given orally, and patients with grade II reactions and above can be given oral or intravenous infusion after giving epinephrine rescue. Glucocorticoids can be used as second-line medication for the rescue of severe allergic reactions.
Oral or intravenous glucocorticosteroids may reduce the risk of biphasic or delayed biphasic reactions; nebulized inhalation or intravenous administration of glucocorticosteroids may be considered if the patient presents with persistent bronchospasm.
Grade I: Only skin and mucosal system symptoms and gastrointestinal system symptoms, hemodynamic stability, and stable respiratory system function
Skin mucosal system symptoms: rash, itching or flushing, redness and swelling of lips and tongue and/or numbness, etc.
Gastrointestinal system symptoms: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, etc.
Grade II: Apparent respiratory symptoms or decreased blood pressure
Respiratory symptoms: chest tightness, shortness of breath, dyspnea, wheezing, bronchospasm, cyanosis, decrease in peak respiratory flow, oxygen deficiency, etc.
Decreased blood pressure:
Adults with systolic blood pressure of 80 to 90 mmHg or 30% to 40% decrease from basal values
Infants and children:
1~10 years old: systolic blood pressure
11~17 years old: systolic blood pressure
Grade III: onset of any of the following symptoms: confusion, drowsiness, loss of consciousness, severe bronchospasm and/or laryngeal edema, cyanosis, severe blood pressure drop (40% systolic blood pressure)/incontinence
Grade IV: cardiac and/or respiratory arrest
Pre-emptive use of glucocorticosteroids, if necessary, with medical advice
Some people are prone to allergies when they come into contact with certain allergens or use certain drugs, not only because of the body itself, but also because of certain drugs. Drug allergies can be uncomfortable in mild cases and dangerous to health in severe cases. How to prevent drug allergy?
The recommendation states that contact with allergens should be avoided; if contact with suspected allergens is necessary, consider applying glucocorticosteroids 6 to 12 hours in advance for prophylaxis, and monitor closely after prophylaxis; prophylaxis is not recommended for people with no allergy history.