The continuous heavy rainfall in Henan has not only caused great economic losses, but also the passage of life. The changes of disaster conditions affect people’s hearts all the time. Long lasting rainfall or large accumulated rainfall, as well as high overlap of heavy rainfall areas, may lead to urban and rural waterlogging, mountain torrents and other disasters. Global warming, environmental degradation, natural disasters occur more and more frequently. In the face of natural disasters, human beings are small but strong. So what can we do in the face of floods?
Rescue of drowned persons
In flood, the most common is drowning, which is mainly due to hypoxia and asphyxia caused by people submerged in water, liquid filling respiratory tract and laryngeal spasm caused by alveolar or reflex.
1,Rescue the drowned person out of the water quickly;
2,Keep the respiratory tract smooth: remove the sludge, weeds and vomit from the mouth and throat of the drowned person, loosen his collar and belt, and ensure the smooth respiratory tract. Dr. Fu Rong’s warm reminder: the time of cardiopulmonary resuscitation cannot be delayed because of the removal of respiratory secretions and obstructions.
3,Quickly discharge water in respiratory tract and digestive tract:
Knee top method: the rescuer takes a half squat position, kneels on one leg and bends the other leg, places the abdomen of the drowned person on the thigh of the rescuer, sags the head, and pats his back with his hand to drive the water out of the body.
Shoulder top method: the rescuer hugs the drowned person’s legs and puts his abdomen on the rescuer’s shoulder to make the drowned person’s head and chest droop. The rescuer runs quickly to drain the water in his body.
4,Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: if the drowned person has no breathing and pulse and has cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation shall be carried out immediately.
External chest compression: lay the drowned person on his back and flat on a hard plane, and the rescuer is on his side. The pressing position is in the lower half of the sternum, and the pressing point is located at the midpoint of the line between the double nipples. Place the root of one palm on the pressing part, stack the root of the other palm on it, fasten the fingers of both hands, and press with the root of the palm as the focus.
Lean forward slightly so that the shoulders, elbows and wrists are on the same axis and perpendicular to the patient’s body plane. Press with upper body gravity for the same time as relaxation. Keep the pressing frequency of 100-120 times / min, and the pressing depth for adults shall be no less than 5cm and no more than 6cm. After each pressing, the thorax shall fully recover, but the palm shall not leave the chest wall when relaxing.
Artificial respiration: for non professionals, mouth-to-mouth breathing is a fast and effective ventilation method, and the oxygen in the exhaled gas is enough to meet the needs of patients.
During artificial respiration, loosen the patient’s clothes to ensure that the airway is unobstructed, pinch the patient’s nostrils to prevent air leakage. The rescuer completely wraps the patient’s mouth with his lips in a sealed shape and blows slowly. Each blow should last more than 1s to ensure that chest fluctuations can be seen during ventilation. The whole process should be blown slowly without too fast or excessive force.
5,Quickly send to the hospital for further treatment.
Flood disasters often cause water pollution, creating conditions for the large-scale prevalence of some water-borne infectious diseases. They are easy to be polluted by bacteria, viruses, parasitic eggs, schistosoma cercariae, leptospirosis and so on.
At the same time, the original safe drinking water source cannot be used normally due to inundation, damage or congestion. The disaster affected people are forced to use non clean water sources (such as polluted surface water) as drinking water sources, which is easy to cause the outbreak of water-borne intestinal infectious diseases.
Therefore, when residents arrive at a safe place, they should improve the sanitary conditions of the residence, remove the garbage and dirt left by the flood, spray insecticides regularly to reduce the density of mosquitoes and flies, and kill rats if necessary.
Due to the massive destruction of buildings, some people are forced to sleep in the open, especially pay attention to insect-borne infectious diseases. The main means of prevention is to protect people from mosquitoes and other blood sucking insects. For example, plants with natural insect repellent effect shall be used to fumigate and expel mosquitoes, and materials such as mosquito nets and repellents shall be transferred to the disaster area as far as possible.
There are many disinfection methods for drinking water. The simple and practical ones are boiling disinfection and chlorination disinfection:
Boiling disinfection is one of the most simple and effective disinfection methods. Generally, bacteria can’t survive when the water temperature is about 80 ℃. After boiling the water for a few minutes, almost all bacteria and viruses contained in the water can be killed. However, this disinfection method has no continuous bactericidal effect, and the boiled water may be polluted by pathogens again during storage.
Therefore, the container containing boiled water should be clean. A boiled water tap or public water scoop should be set. Do not use a drinking cup to get water directly from the container.
Chlorination disinfection is to add chlorine preparation into water to kill bacteria in water through its effect of effective chlorine. The commonly used chlorine preparations include YOULUJING, bleaching powder, bleaching powder tablets, etc.
Bleaching powder and bleaching powder tablets are most used in rural household drinking water disinfection; It not only has strong bactericidal power, convenient use and low price, but also can maintain a certain amount of residual concentration in water. Even if the water is polluted again, the residual chlorine still has disinfection effect, so it has been widely used. The dosage of bleaching powder (concentrate) shall be determined according to the water quality, water quantity, available chlorine content of bleaching powder (concentrate) and other factors.
Disinfect with bleach essence (calculated according to 50% of available chlorine), and add 4 ~ 8g per ton of water; If bleach powder tablets are used for disinfection (calculated according to the effective chlorine content of 0.2g per tablet), one tablet shall be added per kilogram of water (50kg). The method is as follows: grind the bleach essence or bleach essence tablets, mix them into a paste with clean water, pour them into the water to be disinfected, stir them fully, cover and stand for 30 minutes before use.
Bleaching powder (essence) will fail in case of high temperature, light and humidity, so it must be placed in a dry and cool place that can avoid light (such as tightening the bottle cap with a brown bottle for storage). If 55% ~ 60% YOULUJING is used to disinfect drinking water, the dosage per ton of water is 12.5g.
Effervescent tablets can be used for disinfection of household drinking water. First add the effervescent tablet into the water ladle according to the amount required in the manual, and then pour it into the bucket or water tank to mix evenly. It can be drunk after 30 minutes. Drinking water must be boiled before use.