In life, accidents always come out of nowhere, so mastering first aid skills early can save your life and the lives of your family at critical moments! Especially for children, they lack self-protection awareness and are prone to various accidental injuries, which has become the number one health “killer” for children aged 0-14. As the guardians of children, we need to learn some knowledge to prevent accidents before they happen. For example, foreign body aspiration, traffic accidents, falls, burns, food poisoning, electric shock, nosebleeds, drowning… When children encounter these dangers, do parents know how to properly administer first aid?
8 kinds of home first aid skills, but hopefully not used, but you must know.
1,Foreign body inhalation of the trachea
Foreign body inhalation includes a variety of small objects, such as toy parts, peanuts, melon seeds, the most common is infant milk inhalation, inhalation baby will have a cough, breathing difficulties, purple face, serious cases may be immediately dead.
First aid treatment when foreign body inhalation
Patting the back method: let the child lie on the rescuer’s knee, head down, hold his chest and pat the back (head down, hold the chest and pat the back).
Forced squeeze stomach method: rescuer hold the child’s waist, use both hands index finger, middle finger, ring finger top pressure on its upper abdomen, forcefully squeeze backward and upward, press and then relax, repeat and rhythmically to form impact airflow to flush out the foreign body; if it is a big child, encourage coughing.
How to prevent foreign body inhalation: prohibit supine feeding; do not lie down to eat or eat while running; avoid giving small children under 5 years of age to eat small particles or food that is not easy to chew, such as: peanuts, melon seeds, beans, corn, jelly, etc.; laughing and crying are strictly prohibited when eating; where the baby goes, do not put small, fine items that can be put into the mouth; do not give the child forced medication; correct the bad habit of holding things in the mouth, if found, patiently If found, persuade them to spit out, do not use fingers to forcibly dig out, and do not intimidate.
Every year, 1.26 million people die and 15 million people are injured due to traffic accidents, that is, one person is injured every 2 seconds and one person is killed every 50 seconds.
Traffic accident prevention education: Children should be familiar with various traffic signals and signs. Do not engage in various sports activities and play on the road. Do not play under cars. Do not stick your head and arms out of the window when riding in a car.
Install baby seats: In a crash, baby seats can reduce child deaths by 54-80%.
Wear a helmet: In a crash, it can reduce the risk of death by 40%; a good quality helmet can also reduce the risk of serious injury by 70%.
Infants and toddlers have poor balance, and preschoolers are prone to fall when they chase and play and climb high in kindergarten, while boys are more active by nature and have a higher incidence than girls.
Effective preventive measures:Promote the implementation of child safety facilities. Playgrounds should be paved with more leather floors or rubber floors. Install window bars on home windows, the height and slope of stairs should be suitable for children’s growth and development, and washrooms should be paved with non-slip tiles. Play under parental guidance and wear protective gear. Do not stand alone on high places such as tables and chairs. Check for gutters, sewers, etc. around housing and remove obstacles such as wires and ropes on the ground.
First aid treatment of fall injury
First observation: first, first observe for a few seconds to initially assess the child’s injury site, if it is a high faller, should not be moved at will; second, second observation whether the baby is depressed, drowsy, there is no crying, irritable, of course, some children may appear depressed after the fall and sleep, can be woken up 1-2 hours after sleep to observe; third, whether there has been coma, vomiting, convulsions; fourth, whether there is abnormal physical activity; fifth, breathing, heartbeat; sixth, some babies have no special abnormal performance at that time, only after a few days to appear abnormal symptoms.
Treatment: First, soft tissue contusions or abrasions: check the size of the wound, depth, whether there is serious pollution and foreign body retention, promptly wash the wound with cold water or soapy water, and foreign body removal, heavy need to sterilize bandages; second, limb fractures: fix the position, bandage to stop bleeding.
burns: high temperature of flame and strong acid, strong alkali, X-rays, atomic rays, etc. to damage the tissue.
Scald: high temperature objects without flame (such as boiling water, hot oil) caused by tissue damage.
How to prevent burns: put the thermos and water dispenser at home where children can’t easily touch them; when cooking in the kitchen, don’t leave or close the door to prevent children from breaking in; put ignition appliances in places where children can’t easily reach them; turn off the switch when the gas is not in use; when taking out food from the microwave oven, children are not around; hot containers such as rice cookers are not placed on the floor and low when there is hot food; don’t put chemicals in places where children can reach them. Do not place chemicals within reach of children. Don’t use mineral water bottles for chemicals
How to give first aid for burns
General small area of mild burns: ① flush: immediately flush with cold water or soak 15-30 minutes; ② undress (cut clothes): clothing adhesion can not be torn, can cut off the clothes around the wound, sterile gauze to cover the wound; ③ cover: gently external dressing with wet gauze, if there are blisters, do not break.
Caution: ① Do not rub the wound, do not apply soy sauce, toothpaste, topical ointment, red salve, purple salve, etc.; ② Keep the wound clean and intact, cover the wound with a clean sheet or shirt; ③ For chemical supplies such as acid-induced burns: first absorb dry with flannel and cotton, then flush with water for 15-20 minutes, and then immediately go to the hospital.
Food poisoning is divided into: bacterial food poisoning, chemical food poisoning, and plant and animal food poisoning, which are characterized by the fact that the poisoned person has consumed some kind of the same suspected poisoned food within a similar period of time, and the poisoning does not occur in those who have not consumed it, and the onset stops soon after the food is stopped. The incubation period is short, the onset is rapid, and the duration of the disease is short. The clinical manifestations of all poisoned persons are basically similar, showing symptoms of acute gastroenteritis, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, etc.
Foods that can easily cause food poisoning
Food easily contaminated by bacteria: meat, fish, eggs, milk, etc., roasted and brined meat, cold dishes; leftover food, etc.
Food contaminated by toxic and harmful chemicals: vegetables and fruits contaminated by pesticides; seafood shellfish contaminated by toxic algae, etc.
Inherently contain natural toxic ingredients: puffer fish; poisonous mushrooms; rotten and spoiled fish such as tuna, mackerel, pond fish, etc.
Foods that produce toxic substances in specific environments: sprouted potatoes, moldy sugar cane, unheated and uncooked soy milk, string beans, almonds, cassava, fresh cauliflower, etc., and some vegetables that have been left for a long time or pickled products.
How to prevent food poisoning:Keep the kitchen environment and dining utensils clean and sanitary. Choose fresh and safe food and food ingredients. Heat food thoroughly, especially meat, milk, eggs and their products. Four seasons beans and soy milk should be cooked thoroughly. Food should be consumed within 2 hours, do not take vegetables that are not fresh, and eat less pickled food. Store raw and cooked foods separately. Develop good personal hygiene habits.
First aid treatment of food poisoning:Immediately stop serving and consuming suspected poisoned food. Eructate and induce diarrhea and send the patient to a nearby hospital as soon as possible. Note: Do not tilt your head when applying acupressure to induce vomiting!
6,Electric shock injury
Common causes of electric shock injuries: children playing with light plugs, sockets, wires or other electrical appliances, digging into electrical sockets with fingers, keys, coins, metal pins, etc. Indoor electrical outlets are installed too low. Accidental contact with electric wires and transformers. Pulling others who are electrocuted without protective equipment. Getting wet during lightning, taking shelter or playing under a big tree.
Prevention of electric shock injuries: Raise awareness of the dangers of electricity. Always check electrical wires and appliances for leaks. Do not play with and dismantle or install lights, sockets, wires and appliances. Install indoor sockets out of the reach of children. Do not wipe electrical appliances with wet hands or wet rags. If you find a broken wire, do not approach it, and do not touch it with your hands. Don’t take shelter next to utility poles or under the eaves of high walls during lightning storms to prevent lightning strikes.
First aid treatment of electric shock injury
Disconnect from the power supply: Cutting off the main power supply is the most effective first aid measure! If the main switch is far from the scene, use insulating objects, such as dry wood, bamboo poles and plastic and rubber products, porcelain, etc., to pick open the wires or appliances. Never touch the electrocuted person directly.
On-site first aid: after leaving the power supply, immediately check their consciousness, breathing, heartbeat and pupils and other vital signs: first, if the electrocution is awake, only feel panic, numbness of the limbs, dizziness and weakness, no special treatment, closely observe the heart, blood pressure and respiratory changes, and be alert to delayed electric shock. Second, if respiratory arrest occurs, cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be performed immediately.
7,First aid treatment of nosebleed
Tilt your body slightly forward and pinch the cartilage below the bridge of the nose with your fingers for about 5-15 minutes, or put a small ice pack on the bridge of the nose, which may also stop the bleeding. It is forbidden to tilt the head back, which will make the blood flow into the mouth and even be sucked into the lungs, which is neither safe nor sanitary.
8,First aid treatment of drowning
Many articles suggest that when a child is drowning, the first thing to do is to control the water, but that method is wrong, the correct approach is: no need to control the water, direct assessment. First remove the foreign body in the mouth and nose, keep the airway open, breathing, heartbeat have stopped, should immediately do cardiopulmonary resuscitation.