Kernel and Cassava poisoning, caused by eating kernel and cassava poisoning containing cyanosides. Some nuts (apricot, peach, plum, loquat and other nucleoli) and cassava contain cyanoside, which can be decomposed under the action of enzymes to produce hydrocyanic acid and cause poisoning. There are more than 10 kinds of cyanosides naturally distributed in more than 100 species of plants. The most common cause is amygdaloside (amygdaloside) in nuts and linamarin (linamarin) in cassava. The cyanoside content of bitter almond was 20 ~ 30 times that of sweet almond. The cyanoside content in the bark of cassava root tuber was the highest, about twice that of stem and 4 ~ 5 times that of root tuber. The minimum lethal dose of hydrocyanic acid was 0.5 ~ 3.5mg/kg body weight.
Mechanism and symptoms of poisoning
Nut poisoning often occurs in children after eating raw fruit kernels, or after treating a cough with bitter almonds without a doctor’s prescription. Cassava poisoning is mainly caused by raw food or improper handling.
When cyanoside is ingestion into the body, it is decomposed under the action of enzyme, releasing hydrocyanic acid, which is absorbed. Cyanoside is combined with iron of cytochromic oxidase, so that it can not transfer electrons, tissue respiration can not be carried out normally, and the body is in a state of suffocation. Hydrocyanic acid can also damage the respiratory and vasomotor centers of medulla oblongata.
The incubation period of bitter almond
was mostly 1 ~ 2 hours (0.5 ~ 5 hours). The incubation period of cassava poisoning is slightly longer, usually 6 to 9 hours (1 to 12 hours). When beginning, have bitter in the mouth first, salivate, giddy, have a headache, nausea, vomiting, palpitation, pulse frequency, limbs are weak to wait. Severe cases have chest tightness and breathing difficulties. In severe cases, consciousness is not clear or coma. He died of respiratory paralysis or cardiac arrest.
When small amounts of cyanide enter the body, they can be metabolized to form thiocyanates or sulfites, which are excreted in the urine.
Vomiting and gastric lavage may be induced shortly after ingestion. Detoxification available nitrite isoamyl ester, sodium nitrite, with fresh preparation of sodium thiosulfate. The three drugs work best in combination. The role of isoamyl nitrite and sodium nitrite is to make hemoglobin into methemoglobin, which competes with cytochrome oxidase to bind cyanide ions and form cyanmethemoglobin to detoxify. But the combination is not stable, and can release cyanide ions, so it is necessary to give sodium thiosulfate, and it is combined into thiocyanate, discharged from the body. Careful attention should be paid to side effects. Methylene blue solution can also be used for injection, but the effect is less effective.
In severe cases, cytochrome injections, oxygen, artificial respiration and other symptomatic treatments may be given.
The prevention of
Mainly to the public especially children do not eat raw nucleoli. For the treatment of bitter almonds, a doctor’s prescription must be followed. Grind almond into pulp, cook apricot tea again, hydrocyanic acid encounters heat can evaporate, fry almond also can go poisonous.
Prevention of cassava poisoning, the main is to master the safe eating method, cassava contains cyanide glycosides soluble in water. Before general edible peel potato, wash potato meat, cooking open pot, make hydrocyanic acid volatilization, cooking potato meat, and then with bubbles, and then steamed cooked food. It can also be cut into slices, blistered and cooked again. When planting cassava, choose the less toxic varieties. In addition, cassava as far as industrial use, such as manufacturing starch, industrial alcohol, etc. The United States stipulates that the content of cyyanoside in Lima bean must be less than 20mg/100g before eating.