Gansu marathon 21 people killed in the accident, I believe many runners, for the safe home this sentence, have a deeper understanding. The challenge of nature, the harsh environment, is too much for us to complete the high intensity of the game. Understanding hypothermia common sense, preparedness, proper emergency measures, can make our outdoor safety more than one guarantee. Today, we are going to talk about hypothermia.
First of all, the reason for the loss of temperature: the loss of temperature is the heat produced by people did not dissipate fast, the principle is the same as the vernacular. Super easy. But what conditions can cause hypothermia? Generally speaking, 0 to 10 degrees is the most easy to lose temperature, add: 0 to 10 degrees rainy windy days, this kind of weather is too dangerous, really dangerous. It’s a lot more dangerous than minus 10 or 20 degrees, because water can heat 25 to 30 times faster than normal clothing, you’re sweating, your underwear doesn’t sweat well, your middle layer is great it’s the most breathable domestic fleece, but you have a hard shell or a raincoat. As soon as the lotus leaf film on the surface of the hard shell fails, it will be wet by the rain. The waterproof and breathable film in the middle of the fabric, that’s all it’s got, it’s not breathable. At this point, the inside of your hard shell will accumulate moisture from the surface until the waterproof breathable membrane is saturated. Well, the water has connected you from the inside to the outside. You’ve got all the conditions for the loss of temperature. A raincoat is worse than a hard shell. It’s completely airtight. As for the loss of temperature, another crucial condition is the wind. The temperature of the body decreases by about 2 degrees with the increase of one level of the wind, and the ultimate temperature will drop by 5 to 6 degrees. The temperature of the body refers to the rate at which the body loses heat. It’s related to the real temperature, but different. The perceived temperature of the wind body is far lower than the real temperature, and the perceived temperature is far higher than the actual temperature when there is no wind and sunlight is strong or high temperature and humid heat.
Human hypothermia can be divided into the following stages:
Level 1: Mild hypothermia: 33-37°C, trembling, increased heart rate, increased urination, increased frequency of breathing, muscle discoordination, staggering, abnormal behavior.
Level 2: Moderate hypothermia: 29-33°C, trance, reduced or disappeared tremors, weakness, numbness, decreased IQ, slurred speech, memory impairment, visual impairment, arrhythmia, dilated pupils.
Level 3: Severe hypothermia: 22-29°C, coma, loss of nerve reflexes (no response to pain), very low respiratory rate and heart rhythm, hypotension, possible ventricular fibrillation, inability of the patient to autonomic body temperature regulation.
Level 4: Fatal: below 22°C, muscles stiff, little visible heartbeat or breathing, very prone to ventricular fibrillation and actual death.
You’re running to the next spot in the rain, you’re shivering, you’re cold. You’re giving yourself a pep talk and cursing about the weather. At this point, you may have first order hypothermia. At the end of first stage hypothermia, you’re going to want to pee, and once you pee, you can’t stop. I’m gonna have to pee again soon. Why? Because the body is protecting itself, the temperature is too low, so it has to take back the blood, which is rich in sugar, many molecular partners and oxygen temperature. However, it is impossible for the blood to take back the brain and internal organs from the body surface, muscles and limbs. There is too much fluid to hold in, and then it has to urinate. If you encounter a constant need to urinate, be sure to alert yourself to the late stage of hypothermia, which is the last period of self-rescue. Call out to your companions immediately and set up A shelter, such as one in Tower A, to avoid the cold.
Change your soaked clothes and drink hot water. If you haven’t peed four or five times, drink hot water and call for a companion. Skytower A is the quickest to build. If you’ve peed four or five times or more, don’t drink hot water. It could kill you!
Urinate more than four or five times, in fact, has two hypothermia, two hypothermia, IQ seriously decreased, the characteristics of super obvious. He’s gonna fall behind. For one thing, hypothermia leads to physical exhaustion, and for another, he keeps peeing. He’s gonna fall behind. If the team takes care of their teammates, they will find that this person keeps asking others to go first, especially girls, to avoid them. The human form at the end of stage 2 hypothermia is like a disembodied soul, he has stopped urinating because the blood has completed the process of contracting into the body’s core. At this point, it was the last time his teammates saved him. He did not have the intelligence quotient basic to your question what answer, even if answered also donkey lip wrong horse mouth. The lack of blood and oxygen in his muscles and skin is causing problems in his nerve endings. This time he has lost his ability to do a trembling, to know the cold convulsion, heat production process, this process also can’t loss resistance temperature quickly, so will stop shaking, some nerve disorder, can produce false hot feeling, he didn’t ability to logical thinking, clearly everyone cold shivering, he quietly began to take off your clothes, or even naked.
The above abnormal phenomenon occurs, teammates must stop to save him, how to save? Manual reheating. Build a shelter or a tent, stuff him in a sleeping bag. Warm the neck and armpits with hot water towels, and between the legs, between the legs of the hot water bottle or warm the baby several layers ah… . Never give hot water to a level two or something in between. Again. Only people with first degree hypothermia can drink hot water, since hot water rapidly raises internal organ temperature and increases tissue fluid volume, causing blood to quickly return to the extremities leading to severe hypotension. I do not know how many two hypothermia is holding the thermos cup drink death… . And don’t rub the limbs… This one will die faster.
But a vigorous rub will cause a rapid return of residual cold blood to the extremities, cardiac arrest. Warm water bag or warm baby, then sleeping bag, then wrap up. Level 3 hypothermia theoretically can not save a good person, because at this time his heart rate is very low, the brain will be in a few hours of serious hypoxia, hypoxia than the plateau, even to the hospital, rescued is likely to be a fool. As for the symptoms of grade 4 hypothermia, the human body is completely hibernated, the heart rate is only one to two, breathing is almost stagnant, the most helpless way for the human body to save itself, this kind of people, you ignore him, he can also live in this way for more than ten hours. As for carrying them down the mountain to the hospital, it was all humanity.
Having said so much, we know the principle of hypothermia, but when we meet our companions, how should we rescue them?
Step 1: Move safely
In many hypothermia cases, the victim is exposed to the harsh environment caused by hypothermia. When your teammate develops hypothermia in these conditions, the first step is to get him to safety. The wrong thing to do is to remain exposed.
Wrong practice: Continue to expose — ignore your teammates when they show hypothermia symptoms, or directly rescue them in exposed areas such as passes or mountaintops. Patients in snow and snow will aggravate hypothermia.
What to do: Move or camp – Stop outdoor activities immediately and move the patient to shelter from the wind, behind a shelter such as a rock. Set up tents for rescue if necessary. In the process of metastasis, attention should be paid to the patient’s gentle translation, the body is very fragile under hypothermia. Moving safely to a shelter is the first step in hypothermia relief, and then, the second step you want to do is to prevent the loss of body temperature as much as possible.
Step 2: Cold face isolation
Once the patient has been safely moved to shelter, the cold ground continues to eat away at precious heat, and the rescue team’s next step is to isolate the body from the ground.
The wrong approach: Touching the floor — If the patient is lying on the floor, or if there is no sleeping mat in the tent, the floor will act like a greedy hand, pulling the patient’s remaining heat away. Conduction is one of the ways the body loses heat. If the patient is left lying directly on the cold, wet ground, the heat is transferred to the ground, further reducing the body temperature.
What to do: Insulate the floor – When transferring the patient, rescuers should quickly use a sleeping mat to insulate the patient from the floor to prevent further loss of core body temperature as heat is transferred from hot to cold objects. For patients, heat is lost from the body to the cold floor, and the sleeping pad’s job is to block the floor and slow the heat transfer process.
Step 3: Drying
Patients with hypothermia symptoms, may have been hiking in the snow for a long time, the inner layer of clothing has been wet; Outside rain and snow can also wet clothes. The rescuer should help the patient change clothes as soon as possible to keep the patient dry and reduce heat loss due to damp clothes.
Out: Wear wet clothes — If you leave clothes wet from rain or snow on your body, your body will remain in a wet environment. The water in the clothing acts as a heat transfer conductor, and the evaporation of the water also takes away more heat.
Correct action: Change dry clothes and get into a sleeping bag — if the patient gets wet, no matter how many layers of clothing they are wearing, quickly remove all the wet clothes, dry the patient with fabric, change into dry clothes, and wrap the patient with a sleeping bag or thick clothing. Safe transfer, reduce wind chill effect; Cold face isolation, slow down the heat conduction; Drying treatment, preventing heat loss, hypothermia rescue is a race with the “heat”, do the first three, has slowed down the heat loss. At this point, if the patient has not recovered, it is necessary to pass the fourth step, to the patient input heat, let the patient “slowly back to the temperature”.
Step 4: Heating the core area
When the hypothermia is severe, the patient’s consciousness will be blurred and the muscles will no longer tremble, which means that the patient’s body has lost the ability to heat the body. At this time, it does not matter how thick the warm material is, it can only be used for external heating of the core, and it is wrong to heat the limbs.
What to do: Rub your hands and feet — A common mistake is to rub the palms and feet. First of all, friction in patients with frostbite will cause secondary damage; Second, warmer extremities can cause a flow of cold blood to hit the heart. In severe hypothermia, the body goes into a state of self-preservation. The body concentrates warm blood in the core, and heating the extremities accelerates the flow of cold blood back to the core.
Correct approach: Heating the core area — the way to warm the core area can be hot water bag and heat patch, heating the patient’s neck, armpit, groin and other core areas. By heating up the core area, the patient’s heat is replenized, and at the same time, the real way to get the patient’s body back to heat production is to replenish energy and allow the patient to warm himself.
Step 5: Energy infusion
The reason why people will be hypothermia, is the body’s heat enemy but loss. The body’s source of heat is energy. Patients with severe hypothermia have exhausted their energy, so they need to replenish it by eating to restore their heating capacity as soon as possible. However, drinking alcohol does not provide energy.
The mistake: Drinking – It’s a common mistake to let people with hypothermia drink alcohol. Drinking alcohol does give the illusion of “warmth,” but then increases heat loss. Alcohol itself does not provide much heat to the body, and it causes the blood vessels to dilate, which increases blood circulation, thereby accelerating the loss of body heat. The dilated blood vessels also accelerate the return of cold blood to the core.
Correct approach: add liquid hot food – hypothermia rescue is the fundamental body to restore heat production, so feed patients with some liquid room temperature high calorie food, such as concentrated sugar water, hot chocolate, so that hypothermia patients to obtain heat production energy, here must pay attention to identify the above mentioned problem of urination.