Preventive and first aid measures of gas poisoning


alopah Date:2021-08-04 09:34:35 From:alopah.com
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At present, there is a high incidence of environmental emergency accidents caused by safety production accidents. In these accidents, a large number of toxic and harmful gases are often leaked or even burned or exploded, which pose a serious threat to the safety of people’s lives. At the same time, due to the spread of toxic and harmful gases at the accident site, it is very difficult for the personnel of the emergency response departments such as fire protection, safety supervision and environmental protection to enter the scene and carry out rescue and rescue work. Accordingly, understand poisonous, harmful gas physical and chemical nature and toxicology, carry out the emergency thought that gives priority to prevention, adopt suitable protective measure and equipment, very necessary.

 

Prevention and first aid of hydrogen sulfide poisoning

 

Hydrogen sulfide has rotten egg smell, is a colorless flammable gas, widely exists in petroleum, chemical, leather, paper and other industries, waste gas, septic tank, sewage ditch, tunnel, garbage pool, there are a lot of hydrogen sulfide produced by the decomposition of various organic matter. Hydrogen sulfide mainly damages the central nervous system, and produces irritation symptoms to the respiratory tract and eyes when inhaled in the short term. Extremely high concentration (up to 1000mg/ m3) inhalation, can be in a few seconds of sudden coma, respiratory arrest, and then lead to “lightning” death.

 

(1) Judgment

 

Contact the personnel of hydrogen sulfide, can appear the following symptoms: acute headache, dizziness, irritability, delirium, fatigue, coma, convulsions, cough, chest pain, chest tightness, sore throat, short of breath, appear even pulmonary edema, pneumonia, laryngeal spasm and suffocation, conjunctival congestion, edema, afraid of light, tears, then drop in blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmia, etc.

 

(2) Prevention

 

  • Perfect the industrial production process, strictly close, provide sufficient local exhaust and comprehensive ventilation, no running, no leakage of hydrogen sulfide gas.
  • Strengthen safety and environmental protection education and preventive measures. Smoking, eating and drinking are strictly prohibited. Shower and change clothes after work; Work in high-concentration areas must be monitored.
  • Wear protective tools. In emergency rescue or evacuation, use positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus, wear chemical safety protection for eyes and rubber gloves.

 

(3) Emergency handling and first aid

 

  • Evacuate immediately to windward, isolate until gas is dispersed, and cut off the fire source.
  • Reasonable ventilation, cut off the air source, spray water dilution and dissolution, and collect and treat wastewater. Exhaust (indoor) or strong ventilation (outdoor).
  • Dispose of poisoned persons. When conditions, intravenous injection of 50% hypertonic glucose 20ml, add vitamin C300 ~ 500mg. Serious cases should be sent to hospital.

 

Prevention and first aid of chlorine poisoning

 

Chlorine gas is yellow green gas, have asphyxiating smell. Widely used in petroleum, chemical industry. Chlorine gas is noncombustible, but can form explosive mixtures with commonly flammable gases or vapors, and can react violently with many chemicals to cause an explosion. Such as turpentine, ether, ammonia, metal powder and so on. Chlorine gas mainly on the respiratory tract, eyes and skin has a strong irritation. Short-term inhalation can cause glottis edema, which can produce asphyxia or pulmonary edema, can be concurrent pneumothorax.

 

gas poisoning

 

(1) Judgment

 

People exposed to chlorine gas may have the following symptoms: tears, runny nose, dry throat, sore throat, chest tightness, shortness of breath, even pulmonary edema and asphyxiation, and the lungs may have dry, wet rale or asthma sound.

 

(2) Prevention

 

  • Perfect the industrial production process, strictly close, provide sufficient local exhaust and comprehensive ventilation, no chlorine leakage.
  • Strengthen safety and environmental protection education and preventive measures. Smoking, eating and drinking are strictly prohibited. Shower and change clothes after work; Work in high-concentration areas must be monitored.
  • Wear protective tools. In emergency rescue or evacuation, positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus must be used, eyes with chemical safety protection and hands with acid and alkali resistant rubber gloves must be worn.

 

(3) Emergency handling and first aid

 

  • Evacuate immediately to windward, isolate until gas is dispersed, and cut off the fire source. Avoid contact between chlorine gas and turpentine, ether, ammonia gas and metal powder.
  • Reasonable ventilation, cut off the air source, spray water dilution and dissolution, and collect and treat wastewater. Exhaust (indoor) or strong ventilation (outdoor). If possible, the leaking chlorine gas cylinder is placed in lime emulsion, and then the leaking cylinder is treated technically.
  • Dispose of poisoned persons. Evacuate people quickly to fresh air, keep quiet and warm. Pay attention to the early changes in the condition and get a chest X-ray. Poisoned persons should avoid activity. Serious cases should be sent to hospital.

 

Prevention and first aid of carbon monoxide poisoning

 

Carbon monoxide poisoning, also known as gas poisoning, is a colorless, odorless, non-irritating gas. It is often caused by gas leakage in coal furnaces or poor ventilation in mining. Carbon monoxide is breathed into the body and combines with hemoglobin in the blood to form carboxyhemoglobin. It has a 210 times greater affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen, and it dissociates at 1/2100 the rate of oxygen. After inhalation cause tissue hypoxia, spasm and edema. When the concentration of carbon monoxide in blood reaches 0.02%, symptoms such as nervous system damage and hypoxia can appear in 2-3 hours. When the concentration in the indoor environment reaches 0.08%, coma can be achieved in 2 hours.

 

(1) Judgment and first aid

 

  • Mild: headache, dizziness, palpitation, tinnitus, poor eye rotation, nausea and vomiting, general weakness. Get out of the toxic environment immediately, breathe in fresh air, and recover quickly.
  • Moderate: in addition to mild symptoms, often unconsciousness, mucous membrane, lips, skin, nails cherry red. Rushed to the hospital to rescue, rescue a few days in time to recover.
  • Severe: lung, brain, heart damage, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, arrhythmia, elevated body temperature, pale or blue skin, coma, paralysis, seizures. Rushed to the hospital for rescue, rescue after recovery left memory loss, mental retardation, mental disorder and other symptoms.

 

(2) Prevention

 

  • Perfect the industrial production process and strictly close it; Daily strictly check whether the gas pipeline, valve gas run, should be repaired in time, strictly abide by the rules of use.
  • The kitchen of coal burner should have wind hopper for adequate ventilation.
  • Strengthen the publicity and education of safety and environmental protection, improve the knowledge level of gas poisoning prevention and rescue. Strengthen preventive measures. Smoking, eating and drinking are strictly prohibited. Shower and change clothes after work; Work in high-concentration areas must be monitored

 

(3) Emergency handling and rescue

 

  • Ventilation is reasonable, air source is cut off, spray water is diluted and dissolved. Exhaust (indoor) or strong ventilation (outdoor). If possible, the leaked gas can be sent to an open place with an exhaust fan or burned off.
  • When you find yourself poisoned, you can temporarily walk (crawl) out of the scene of poisoning, breathe fresh air, and call for help. If you find someone else has been poisoned, immediately open the window and carry the victim away from the scene to a ventilated place. Loosen the button of the clothes so that you can breathe freely and keep warm.
  • In case of vomiting, turn the victim’s head to one side and clean up the secretions in the mouth and nose.
  • Guide people by hand, Zusanli, Neiguan and other points, timely oxygen inhalation. In case of asphyxia, immediate mouth – to – mouth breathing and chest compressions.
  • Rush to the hospital.

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