Heart attack, brain attack, cardiac arrest, trauma …… accidents happen from time to time. Once you miss the golden rescue time, it may cause irreversible consequences. Today to take stock of these “golden rescue time”. Remember these numbers, when critical can save lives!
The golden time for first aid: 90 minutes after the onset. When an acute myocardial infarction occurs, blood flow to certain areas of the heart is suddenly reduced and interrupted, and myocardial cells are necrotic due to ischemia.
1,Angina symptoms: sudden onset of pain in the anterior chest area, dyspnea, and pressure that lasts for more than 20 minutes and is difficult to relieve on its own. Patients are often accompanied by nervousness and anxiety.
2,Symptoms of cardiogenic shock: manifested as lowered blood pressure, syncope, sweating, and wet and cold hands and feet.
3,Cardiac arrest: Myocardial infarction is easily complicated by malignant arrhythmias, resulting in cardiac arrest and loss of consciousness, requiring immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
It should be noted that some patients may start with less typical symptoms of myocardial ischemia, such as toothache, upper limb pain, back pain, nausea, vomiting, etc. There are also individual differences in the subjective perception of angina pectoris.
1,Adult patients with unexplained pain and pressure symptoms in the anterior chest area should think of the possibility of myocardial infarction, be alert and seek medical attention promptly.
2,Nitroglycerin can temporarily relieve angina symptoms, but cannot cure myocardial infarction, and should be used with caution in cases of bradycardia and hypotension.
3,Aspirin, clopidogrel and other drugs to prevent blood clots must be taken under the guidance of professionals.
4,Seek medical consultation and treatment as soon as possible.
First aid golden time: 3 hours to 4.5 hours
The prodromal symptoms of cerebral infarction are not specific, and some patients may have transient ischemic attack such as dizziness, momentary limb numbness and weakness. The onset of this disease is rapid, mostly at rest or during sleep, and its clinical symptoms peak a few hours or one to two days after the onset.
It may manifest as weakness or numbness of one limb (with or without the face), numbness or slanting of the mouth on one side of the face, slurred speech or difficulty in understanding speech, double gaze to one side, loss or blurring of vision in one or both eyes, vertigo with vomiting, and, rarely in the past, severe headache, vomiting, impaired consciousness or convulsions.
Here are 3 ways to help initially determine if a stroke has occurred Get medical attention immediately if one of the following symptoms occurs
Distorted mouth (make the patient smile or show teeth)
Upper limb weakness (ask the patient to close the eyes and extend both upper limbs for 10 seconds)
Abnormal speech (make the patient say eat grapes without spitting out the skin)
1,Resuscitate the patient in the place where he/she fell down, and be careful if you have to move.
2,Never shake the patient with cerebral infarction, cushion the pillow, bend back and forth or twist the head, etc.
3,If the patient is conscious, let him/her lie on his/her back with the head slightly backward, keep the airway open without pillows, and cover with a cotton blanket to keep warm.
4,Patients who are unconscious should be maintained in a supine position to keep the airway open, without pillows.
5,Cold can cause vasoconstriction, so keep the room warm and pay attention to indoor air circulation. Those who are incontinent should remove their pants and pad with toilet paper.
6,When vomiting, face to the side to prevent blocking the airway.
7,Once a convulsion occurs, quickly remove anything dangerous from around the patient. Wrap chopsticks in a handkerchief and put them in the patient’s mouth to prevent the convulsions from coming on and biting the tongue.
Note that it is important to call the emergency number promptly, stating the time and place of onset, the symptoms and the medication to be taken under the guidance of the health care provider on the phone, and seek medical attention as quickly as possible.
Foreign body in the trachea
First aid golden time: 4 minutes to 10 minutes
When a foreign body is stuck in the throat, trachea or bronchus, the foreign body will block the airway and prevent the patient from getting oxygen and thus suffocating.
1,Incomplete airway obstruction: the ability to verbally or gesturally indicate the presence of a possible foreign body in the airway, coughing, wheezing, or even difficulty breathing.
2,Complete airway obstruction: Patients may show “V-shaped” gestures with both hands to grasp the neck, unable to speak, cough, blue lips, and soon stop breathing, convulsions, and fall into coma.
Patients who can shout and cough should be assisted to cough up the foreign body on their own by patting their backs. If the patient still cannot cough up the foreign body or has difficulty in breathing and cannot make a sound, the Heimlich maneuver, also known as the abdominal shock method, should be performed immediately, mainly for adults and children over 1 year old.
1,Resuscitation of others.
If the patient is awake, immediately apply the Heimlich maneuver. The patient stands with legs apart and bent over, and the rescuer stands behind the patient in a lunge, holding him by the waist with both arms. Find the two fingers above the navel, make a fist with the right hand and hold the top of the tiger mouth to the upper abdomen. The left hand presses the right fist and shocks the abdomen backward and upward five to six times in succession. If you are still unable to cough up the foreign body, call the emergency number promptly and repeat the above actions until the foreign body is coughed up.
If the patient is unconscious, call “120” emergency number immediately, let the patient lie on his back, implement CPR in time, and wait for the ambulance to arrive. When opening the airway with CPR, it is necessary to observe whether there is any foreign body obstruction in the throat and remove it carefully if it is found to be easy to remove.
For obese people or pregnant women, the chest shock method can be used. The rescuer stands behind the patient, wraps both arms around the patient’s chest from under the armpit, holds a fist in the middle of the patient’s sternum with the right hand, and shocks the patient backward several times with the other hand until the foreign body is coughed up.
For infants and children under 1 year old, back patting and chest compressions are often used.
Back patting method: The rescuer sits or kneels on one knee, holds the infant’s chest with one forearm, supports the infant’s head and jaw with one hand, and lets the infant lie head down on the rescuer’s knee. The palm root of the other hand is slapped hard on the infant’s back five times and observed to see if the foreign body is discharged.
Chest compression method: If the back pat method does not expel the foreign body, then carefully turn the infant over and rest him/her on the forearm with the palm of the hand holding his/her head and neck, head down, and use the index and middle fingers of the other hand to press the lower part of the infant’s sternum for 5 times. If the infant loses response, perform CPR immediately.
When there are tools at your side, bend your abdomen backwards and upwards against the hardness of the object to impact. You can choose the back of the chair, the edge of the table, the railing and other hard places. When there is no tool, the patient himself in his belly button two finger position fist to the back of the upper force punch.
Finally, whether the foreign body is discharged or not should go to the hospital promptly.
First aid golden time: 6 hours to 8 hours
This category is called open injury, which is commonly known as bleeding trauma, such as cutting vegetables into fingers, cut by broken glass, etc.. There is also a large category of trauma called closed injury, including muscle strains, sprains, bruises and so on.
When it comes to trauma, many people may think of serious traumatic injuries such as car accidents, falls, fires, and even earthquakes. It is true that in cities with advanced transportation and tall buildings there are more and more car accident injuries and fall injuries, but these serious traumatic injuries are still a minority compared to the most common traumatic injuries people suffer. So what are the most common traumatic injuries in life?
For open injuries, there are three things to do when you encounter these types of trauma.
1,Find a sterile gauze, or a clean towel and dry cloth will do, and cover the wound.
2,Directly compress the wound, not to compress the artery, because the majority of injuries are small veins or capillary injury, compression of the wound can be.
3,elevate the affected limb, generally lift over the heart level can be, can lift over the head to stop the bleeding effect will be better. Do the above 3 points and then go to the hospital can be more than others a few points of ease. Note that the disposal of such open trauma prime time is 6 hours to 8 hours after the injury, the head and face can be extended to 24 hours, more than this time window without treatment, the wound infection rate will greatly increase.
Closed injuries, the principles of treatment of such injuries can follow the “RICE principle”.
1,Rest: rest, braking, to prevent re-injury.
2,Ice: ice, the role is mainly to reduce swelling, relieve muscle spasm, you can place ice in a plastic bag on the affected area, each ice 15 minutes to 20 minutes, interval 1 hour to 2 hours, pay attention to watch out for frostbite. Ice time frame is generally 24 hours to 48 hours after the injury, but do not apply hot compresses after two days, otherwise it is easy to swell up again.
3,Compression: pressure bandage, the main purpose is also to reduce local bleeding. The pressure must be moderate. Make sure to feel the pulse at the distal end of the limb after wrapping, if the pulse cannot be felt or if the patient feels swollen and numb, the pressure should be released appropriately.
Elevate: Elevate the affected limb, the purpose of which is also to reduce swelling and promote the reduction of swelling.