With the onset of winter, disease is at its peak, so learn first aid with Alopah, which can come in handy in a pinch.
1, emergency treatment of hypertension
Hypertension patients with headache accompanied by nausea and even vomiting, often a sudden rise in blood pressure, should let the patient rest in bed; If you have a sphygmomanometer at home, you should immediately measure the patient’s blood pressure and heart rate; If blood pressure is high, one to two tablets of nifedipine (xintongtin) or captopril (Captopril) may be taken orally or sublingual first, and blood pressure should be reviewed 20 to 30 minutes later.
2，Emergency treatment of acute myocardial infarction
Expert explanation: the patient’s pain is the same as angina pectoris, but the duration is longer, the degree is heavy, and nausea, vomiting, sweating, a sense of dying, the symptoms and consequences are much more serious than angina pectoris. At this time, the patient should be placed on absolute bed rest, the neckline should be loosened, and the room should be kept quiet and ventilated. Oxygen can be inhaled immediately if necessary. Take one nitroglycerin tablet or one to two tablets under the tongue and call the emergency center immediately. Do not take a bus or walk the patient to the hospital, in case the scope of myocardial infarction expanded.
3, emergency treatment of heart failure
Old people with rheumatic heart disease, coronary heart disease, hypertensive heart disease and pulmonary heart disease, if suddenly appear dyspnea, should let the patient rest quietly, half lying position, bipedal ptosis, have the condition to immediately absorb oxygen, can not be given at will. Should be sent to hospital as soon as possible.
4, emergency treatment of cerebral hemorrhage
Cerebral haemorrhage often starts suddenly in daytime activity, have a headache and vomiting, even appear coma, hemiplegia, incontinence and other symptoms. Once the patient occurs coma, family members must try to control the mood, let the patient lie flat on the bed, do not to wake up the patient and shout loudly or violently shake the coma, otherwise it will only make the condition deteriorate rapidly.
Experts suggest: such patients often have increased cranial pressure, easy to occur projectile vomiting, if not timely remove the vomit, vomiting can be blocked respiratory tract and suffocate death. Therefore, if the patient has no trauma to the cervical spine, the head should be turned to one side to allow the vomit to flow out of the mouth to avoid suffocation.
5, emergency treatment of myocardial infarction
Typical symptoms of a heart attack are: compression pain in the chest, and may radiate into the shoulder, neck and jaw; Irregular heartbeat, dyspnea, anxiety and fear, nausea and vomiting, heavy sweating, pallor or cyanosis in the lip cap bed, pale and bluish skin, which are caused by acute transient myocardial ischemia and hypoxia. A lot of practical experience at home and abroad has proved that one third or even one half of the patients died within one hour of onset. Investigate its reason, in addition to the infarct area is large, but also because at that time did not take the correct treatment measures, such as disorderly moving patients, or patients can insist on their own feeling, walking to the hospital under the support of others, so that infarct area increased, induced complications.
Expert suggestion: should stop activity above all right now, eliminate attack inducement. If rest does not help, medications such as nitroglycerin should be taken immediately. If the number of angina pectoris increases, the pain worsens, or medication does not work well, seek medical attention as soon as possible.
The importance of first aid knowledge
In daily life and travel, people have the possibility of acute illness or accidental injury. For example: trauma bleeding, fracture, especially cardiac arrest patients, if not timely CPR, will soon die. According to statistics, cardiac arrest has become the leading cause of sudden death. Seventy percent of sudden cardiac death patients die out of hospital, 40 percent die 15 minutes after onset, and 30 percent die 15 minutes to 2 hours after onset. Most sudden cardiac death is a transient severe arrhythmia, not a disease that has developed to a fatal degree. As long as the rescue is timely, correct and effective, most patients can be saved. A large number of practices show that the heartbeat within 4 minutes of CARDIopulmonary resuscitation, can have 50% of the people were saved; 4 to 6 minutes of CPR, only 10% of the people can be saved; Only 4% of those who performed CPR for more than 6 minutes survived; If CPR is performed for more than 10 minutes, there is almost no chance of survival, so there is a “golden four minutes”.
From the above first aid time, it is not difficult to see that even in developed countries, there is still a period of time after the onset of illness or injury, until the patient can be rescued, and these few minutes are crucial for the sudden death of the patient. For example, after sudden death in developing countries, waiting for an ambulance to rescue you is almost like waiting for death. In fact, the first aid process is a set of links, known as the “first aid chain of survival.”
Therefore, first aid is not only the responsibility of professional emergency medical personnel, and the important value of self-rescue and mutual rescue should not be ignored. Of course, self-rescue mutual rescue must master first aid knowledge and technology. In self-rescue and mutual-rescue, everyone has the chance to be saved and everyone has the obligation to save.