The recent wave of COVID-19 has spread in many provinces and cities, and the epidemic prevention and control is facing a grim situation. The rival of the outbreak is COVID-19, but it has changed to a new look, called COVID-19 Delta. At present, delta mutant has appeared in at least 132 countries and regions. It is the main virus strain of new crown pandemic in the world. How “toxic” is the delta mutant? How can we prevent and control it?
COVID-19 is a kind of RNA virus. One of the characteristics of this virus is that it is very easy to mutate. If the COVID-19, which is popular in late 2019 and early 2020, is defined as the initial strain, there are already a number of variant strains that cause local or wide spread prevalence. The last Alfa strain in Britain was the first.
The delta strain (Delta8) was first discovered in India in October 2020, carrying mutations in E484Q and L452R, leading to immune escape and increased infectivity. Now it is recognized as a “COVID-19 mutant” by WHO.
The transmission route of the new crown delta mutant has not changed, and it is still three aspects.
1.Respiratory droplet transmission
Sneezing, coughing and even speaking, the droplets from the respiratory tract carry the virus, which will lead to infection in people in close contact, which is the main mode of transmission.
2.Exposure to contaminant transmission
The respiratory droplets and secretions of patients with new crown pollute the object surface, and the virus can survive for a period of time. If others touch the contaminated object surface with their hands, they will be infected if they touch their mouth, eyes and nose.
3.Airborne, or aerosol, transmission
Especially in the indoor narrow space with poor ventilation, if an infected person coughs and sneezes, it will form very small respiratory secretion particles that can hover in the air. Inhalation by others in the same room can lead to infection, and even those who discharge the virus leave the space, and the virus will still exist in the air for a certain time, Others can cause infection when they enter.
Current research shows that people are generally susceptible. After infection, the novel coronavirus vaccine can be obtained with certain immunity, but the duration is not clear.
Public prevention and control measures against delta mutant
In view of the epidemic situation caused by delta mutant strain, although the virus has mutation and enhanced virulence, the familiar prevention and control measures are still effective.
1,Wash hands frequently.
Wash your hands when your hands are dirty. Wash hands or disinfect hands before meals, before meals, before and after defecation, before nursing the elderly, children and patients, and before touching mouth, nose and eyes; After going out and returning home, after coughing or sneezing, cleaning, garbage cleaning, express delivery, elevator buttons, door handles and other public facilities, wash hands or disinfect hands.
2,Wear a mask.
Wear masks when seeking medical treatment with fever, cough and other symptoms, when there are many people, when taking elevators, when taking public transport, and when entering crowded public places.
When coughing and sneezing, cover your mouth and nose with a paper towel. When there is no paper towel, replace it with your elbow. Pay attention not to throw the paper towel randomly.
During the epidemic period, there were fewer meals and gatherings, fewer visits to relatives and friends, fewer wedding banquets and funerals, and unnecessary visits to crowded places.
Do not mix tableware, use public chopsticks and divide meals as much as possible; Try to bring your own tableware when dining in the canteen.
6,Keep social distance and observe the 1m line
Keep a social distance of more than 1m when queuing, paying, talking, exercising and visiting.
When there are many families, when there is peculiar smell and oil fume in the room, when there are patients, open more windows for ventilation after visitors leave.
8,Clean and disinfect
Keep the room clean and tidy every day. Cooking utensils and countertops for handling frozen food, articles and tableware used by patients and visitors shall be disinfected in time.
Precautions for use of common disinfectants
84 disinfectant and toilet cleaning spirit will be poisoned! Absolutely forbidden! Do not spray disinfectant directly to people, which will damage your health!
Alcohol is inflammable and explosive. You must pay attention to safety when using it. Alcohol shall not be used for large-area spraying and environmental surface disinfection. It is not recommended to spray alcohol to disinfect clothes. If exposed to open fire or static electricity, combustion may occur. When using alcohol for disinfection, it is necessary to ensure ventilation and keep away from high-temperature objects. Never contact with open fire. Before using alcohol, clean the surrounding inflammables and combustibles, and do not spray it directly in the air.
9,Keep toilets clean
Clean the toilet frequently, cover the toilet before flushing, often open the window or open the exhaust fan, and keep the floor drain bend full of water.
10,Develop a healthy lifestyle
Strengthen physical exercise, adhere to the law of work and rest, ensure adequate sleep and maintain a healthy state of mind; Healthy diet, smoking cessation and alcohol restriction. Get medical attention in time when there are symptoms.
In response to the national COVID-19 vaccination policy, actively cooperate with vaccination to protect personal health.
Precautions for the public in and out of the hospital during the epidemic
When entering the hospital, you must wear a mask, scan the “Health Code”, “travel code” and measure your temperature; The one meter line must be observed in the queue, and one person and one consulting room shall be used when seeing a doctor; Fever must go to the fever clinic, and nucleic acid testing must be done.
Do not leave the fever clinic area of the hospital until the test results come out; In hospital, nucleic acid and nucleic acid negative can be admitted to the hospital; When the nucleic acid results are not available, they need to live in the buffer ward; The escort should also screen nucleic acid, and only one escort is allowed to stay without special circumstances; If you want to go to the hospital to visit relatives and friends in hospital, it is absolutely not allowed. You can visit by video and other means.
Precautions for nucleic acid detection:
1,Prepare paper towels and masks before sampling.
2,Do not smoke, drink or chew gum half an hour before sampling.
3,Remove the mask during sampling, wear the mask immediately after sampling and leave immediately.
4,Don’t get together to chat and keep a distance of one meter. Wear a mask while waiting for the test.
5,During sampling, nasal swabs may cause itching in the nose and stimulate sneezing. They should be covered with paper towels or elbows immediately. Irritating dry cough, nausea and vomiting may occur during throat swab sampling, which can be relieved by deep breathing. When sampling, try to straighten your body, slightly raise your chin and open your mouth, make a continuous “ah” sound, and cooperate with the doctor to complete the sampling.
6,Wash hands immediately after going home, change the mask and discard it.
“Delta” strain has the characteristics of strong transmission, fast transmission speed, short incubation period, high virus load and rapid disease development, which brings new challenges to epidemic prevention and control. But as long as we protect ourselves, we can reduce the risk of disease. Epidemic prevention and control is full of challenges. Only by fearing risks can we reduce risks!