Stem cells are a kind of pluripotent cells with self replicating ability. Stem cells are not fully differentiated and immature cells, which have the potential function of regenerating various tissues and organs and human body. They are called “universal cells” in the medical community.
Among them, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are adult stem cells in the blood system. They are a heterogeneous group with the ability of long-term self-renewal and the potential to differentiate into various mature blood cells. It is a kind of adult stem cells with the longest and most in-depth research history. It has important guiding significance for the study of all kinds of stem cells, including tumor stem cells.)
In other words, hematopoietic stem cells have the longest research history in the field of medical research and become the best choice for blood and immune system cells. For example, it can become white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. Hematopoietic stem cells are collected from peripheral blood and bone marrow. Hematopoietic stem cells can also be collected from neonatal umbilical cord blood. Because the number is small, most of them are still used for children themselves in the actual use process.
In the past three decades of medical development, umbilical cord blood has been used in the field of transplantation medicine, including the treatment of leukemia and other blood diseases. It should be noted that bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is the first choice, and umbilical cord blood transplantation is generally used as an alternative.
In this article, the use and potential therapeutic range of hematopoietic stem cells will be specified:
Umbilical cord blood cells
Umbilical cord blood transplantation can treat common diseases
Allogeneic and autologous transplantation
Diseases that can be treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the future
First, understand hematopoietic stem cells, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are stem cells that achieve hematopoietic function and rebuild the blood and immune system in the human body. Therefore, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become a treatment for various diseases.
1、 Umbilical cord blood cells
The first use of human umbilical cord blood cells can be traced back to 1974, when scientists first proposed that stem cells and progenitor cells (stem cells existing in adult tissues with clear differentiation targets) exist in human umbilical cord blood. In 1983, it was first proposed to use umbilical cord blood instead of bone marrow. The first umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation was carried out in 1988, five years later. The first successful umbilical cord blood transplantation was carried out in France to restore the patients’ blood and immune system cells.
In addition to its long history of use in transplantation medicine, umbilical cord blood cells also play an increasingly important role in regenerative medicine.
Umbilical cord blood stem cells have been induced to develop into nerve cells, suggesting that the use of umbilical cord blood stem cells may be used in the research and treatment of nervous system diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, spinal cord injury, dementia and related diseases. Umbilical cord blood cells can also develop into blood vessels and are expected to be used for tissue repair after stroke, coronary heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, congestive heart failure and congenital heart disease.
I often see people asking whether there is umbilical cord blood when it is due. The above describes the role and mode of umbilical cord blood. To sum up, the main benefits of cord blood preservation: retaining stem cells for future “life insurance”
2、 Umbilical cord blood transplantation has been proved to be a common disease that can be treated by medicine
Cancer (leukemia, high-risk solid tumor, lymphoma)
Blood diseases (thalassemia, anemia, sickle cell disease)
Immune diseases (severe combined immunodeficiency disease, hypocytic disease, viscott Aldrich syndrome)
Metabolic diseases (KRAB disease, Hurler syndrome, leukodystrophy)
3、 Allogeneic and autologous transplantation
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (including umbilical cord blood transplantation) is the standard treatment choice in the medical community. Most treatments require allografts, and patients must use genetically matched umbilical cord blood donors. The only exception is for patients with solid tumors or acquired anemia, who can receive autologous transplantation.
4、 Future or diseases that can be treated with hematopoietic stem cells.
In addition, scientists say umbilical cord blood transplantation may become a feasible treatment for the following diseases. It should be noted that although the hematopoietic stem cells we listed have so many applications. However, umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation is being studied and promoted. Its treatment standards are complex and need to be formulated urgently, such as the best treatment effect standard, the best number of stem cells for transplantation, and the preferred method of stem cell delivery into the patient’s body.
Other possible diseases are as follows:
Brain diseases (Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, Huntington’s disease, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome)
Cartilage growth and joint regeneration (trauma or surgical injury, rheumatoid arthritis)
Diabetes mellitus (type I diabetes, type II diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus)
Heart disease (coronary heart disease (CHD), heart attack, ischemic heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cor pulmonale)
Liver diseases (alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, Raymond’s syndrome, Wilson’s disease, other liver and biliary diseases)
Multiple sclerosis (relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), primary progressive multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (PPMS) (malignant multiple sclerosis, chronic progressive multiple sclerosis)
Muscular dystrophy (MD)
Skin and tissue regeneration (burns, trauma, epidermolysis bullosa)
Spinal cord trauma (spinal cord injury, paralysis, spinal stenosis, paraplegia)
Stroke (ischemic stroke, intracerebral stroke)