Anatomy is a science with a long history. In Neijing, the first medical work in the Warring States period (500 BC), the cognitive method of “Anatomy” and the name of organs that have been used so far have been clearly put forward. In the ancient Greek era of Western Europe (500-300 BC), the famous philosophers Hippocrates and Aristotle both carried out field anatomy of animals and wrote works.
Basic structure of human body
The first relatively complete anatomical work was Galen’s medical classics (AD 130-201) , there have been detailed and specific descriptions of blood circulation, nerve distribution and many organs. However, since Western Europe was in the dark period of religious rule at that time, it was forbidden to dissect the human body, and the main materials of the book came from animal anatomy and observation, there were many mistakes.
Religious rule has seriously hindered the progress of science and culture and seriously constrained medicine and anatomy for more than 1000 years The development of science.
The Renaissance was a great revolution in European history. Capitalism sprouted and the shackles of the church’s dark rule began to be destroyed. “It was an era of giants in knowledge, spirit and character” (Engels). During this period, the people’s wisdom was fully reflected in the creation of science and art, Da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci can be regarded as a representative of this era. He not only spread his immortal paintings to future generations, but also painted anatomical atlas, which is extremely accurate and detailed even today.
At that time, Andress Vesalius (1514-1564), a great master of anatomy, also emerged. Since he was a student, he risked religious persecution, persistently engaged in human anatomy experiments, and finally completed the human body structure The seven volume book not only systematically and perfectly describes the morphology and structure of various organ systems of the human body, but also bravely gets rid of the shackles of Galen’s authority and corrects many wrong arguments of Galen, thus making him the founder of modern human anatomy.
At the same time with vizari, a group of Anatomists and doctors discovered some human structures, such as ostachus The structures named after eustachius, Sylvius, varolio, aranti, Botallo, etc. are still preserved in anatomy textbooks.
Later, the British scholar William Harvey (1578-1657) put forward the concept that the cardiovascular system is a closed pipeline system and created the theory of blood circulation, which separated physiology from anatomy. After the invention of the microscope, the Italian malcell Malpighi (1628-1694) It was used to observe the microstructure of animals and plants and opened up the distinction of histology.
At the end of the 18th century, embryology began to study ontogeny. In the 19th century, the Italian scholar camello Golgi (1843-1926) pioneered the silver plated impregnated neuron technology, and the Spanish CaHA (rom’on y Cajal, 1852-1934) established the method of silver plating and impregnation of neurofibrils, which became two recognized founders of neuroanatomy.
At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, due to the influence of idealism and metaphysics, human anatomy embarked on the situation of tedious, isolated and static description of human morphological structure, which made some scholars feel hesitant and disappointed and believe that anatomy has become a “fossil” At the end of the mountain, there is no prospect of development, while some scholars start from the dialectical view of nature and start to seek a pioneering path from the aspects of functional anatomy, evolutionary morphology and experimental morphology.
With the surging tide of technological revolution, biomechanics, immunology, histochemistry and molecular biology have penetrated into anatomy in recent 20 years. Some emerging technologies such as tracer technology, immunohistochemistry technology, cell culture technology and in situ molecular hybridization technology have been widely used in morphological research, which makes this ancient discipline call out the brilliance of youth, especially God There has been a rapid development in classics anatomy.