A brief history of human medicine:What is a doctor? In ancient Egypt, treatment was the prerogative of wizards, while in ancient Greece, doctors were regarded as traveling freaks. They were more likely to make their illness worse than help others recover. In the 16th century, innovative doctors tried a wide mixture of medicine, alchemy, astrology, herbal medicine, mineralogy, psychotherapy and faith therapy; In the modern world, medicine has developed to enable doctors to perform remote surgery for patients across the ocean.
Now, to check the inside of the body, you can choose a series of complex scanning and imaging equipment; But in ancient Egypt, such practices would be considered completely irrelevant to treatment: at that time, people thought that diseases were the work of gods, and it was unheard of to examine patients.
Hippocrates, who practiced medicine in ancient Greece, was respected as the “father of modern medicine”. He was imprisoned for many years because he denied that disease was a whim of the gods. But by the time of his death, he had reformed his medical practice and laid a preliminary foundation for the role of doctor.
Naturally, many other people also made contributions – Imhotep of Egypt, Charaka of India, Galen of Rome, Zhang Zhongjing of China in ancient times, alrhazi and Ibn Sina, also known as Avicenna, in the golden age of Islam in the middle ages, Andreas Vesalius, an anatomist, and Paracelsus, who initiated many modern medical norms and pioneers in the Renaissance (Paracelsus). These great men usually challenged the traditional ideas of the time and made contributions to medicine.
Of course, there were many extremely inaccurate medical theories and some folk prescriptions that seemed very strange to us – from cooked puppies to ashes obtained by burning swallows (to “cure” hirsutism). The treatment of bleeding with leeches was once so popular that doctors were actually known as “leeches” at that time.
Galen’s theory of human anatomy is so deep-rooted that no one has questioned its research results for thousands of years. In fact, it comes from dissecting the bodies of dogs and monkeys, not the human body itself. In any case, it is different from these incredible “medicine” There are also herbs and mineral medicines that lay the foundation for today’s effective drug therapy. There are also many hardworking pioneers who are associated with many Jianghu doctors and swindlers.
Careful observation and subtle exploration have played a great role in the development of medicine. For example, before William Harvey, a British doctor, published his masterpiece on heart and blood circulation in 1628, he spent more than 20 years dissecting the beating hearts of thousands of animals belonging to more than 60 species for experiments.
On the basis of concepts and discoveries dating back to ancient times, Harvey put forward his theory Combined with practice, give a scientific, credible and evidence-based description of the circulatory system. With this knowledge, doctors can make great improvements in the methods of diagnosing and treating diseases. Of course, sometimes luck is also extremely important. For example, if the weather does not cool out of season when Scottish medical researcher Alexander Fleming leaves his messy Laboratory for vacation, it would be better He might not have discovered penicillin, which later saved lives, but it was World War II that awakened people to fully realize the potential of this first antibiotic.
War and conflict, as a catalyst for innovation and scholarship, have promoted the development of many branches of medicine. One of the earliest medical documents is the 3600 year old Smith papyrus in ancient Egypt It probably describes the treatment of battlefield trauma; when human anatomy was prohibited in ancient Rome, the injuries of gladiators provided a valuable opportunity for medical observation. Ambroise par é, a French military surgeon in the 16th century Innovative medical supplies such as ointments and bandages were used, which spread from the battlefield to general surgery.
Baron Dominique Jean Larry, another French surgeon, took the lead in using ambulances and treatment options in the 19th century (who should be treated first on the battlefield according to urgency and possibility of rescue) During the first World War, doctors discovered that mustard gas could affect the rapidly proliferating cells in the body, so the medical community developed anticancer chemotherapy drugs. Even the most deadly weapon, the atomic bomb, benefited medicine: its role indirectly led to the birth of bone marrow transplantation and one of the latest research fields in medicine – stem cell therapy.
The development of medical science is amazing. Now, we take it for granted that modern operating rooms should have strict aseptic environment and disinfection equipment. However, it should be remembered that the concept of bacteria as communicators of infectious diseases emerged only in the 19th century. It is also difficult for us to imagine that people carried out an amazing number of surgical operations thousands of years ago, such as From prehistoric times to the 18th century, there has been cranial drilling for patients.
Intentional skin incision was very rare in ancient Greece, but surgeons in ancient Rome have developed tools, equipment and procedures very similar to those now. Of course, modern surgery also uses robots, lasers and incredible technology. Just as it is difficult for us to imagine brain surgery in prehistoric times, it is also difficult for us to imagine how much modern medicine has achieved Great achievements. Modern medicine has launched war against cholera, smallpox and tuberculosis, and decode our DNA. It has drawn the human genome and discovered the potential of nanotechnology and tissue engineering. The future of medicine is aspiring, but the challenges we face should not be underestimated.
In the past 100 years, the increase of nutritional intake, the improvement of public health conditions, the emergence of safety awareness and health education, along with the development of medicine, have brought great progress in human quality of life and life span.
Prominent medical advances include vaccination, antibiotics, new drugs, safer surgery, improved pregnancy and postpartum care, as well as the control of pathogenic factors Cognition, such as carcinogens, pollutants, occupational problems, and risk factors leading to heart disease, stroke and other major fatal diseases. However, at present, medical treatment is a huge industry, economic differences hinder patients’ equal access to technological progress, and millions of people have little or no access to medical care.