China is one of the earliest countries in which medicine culture was born. Ancient Chinese medicine has a long and profound history, with more than 5,000 years of medical culture and civilization, inherited from each other, created many medical miracles, inherited a large number of classical medical books, and emerged a large number of famous medical scholars, whose medical contributions played a great role at that time and still shine brilliantly today.
Ancient Chinese Medicine Culture of Great Profundity
Chinese medicine has a historical origin of 1.7 million years. The Yellow Emperor, Yandi and Qibo left behind beautiful medical legends; the written history of Chinese medicine is 5,000 years old, and medical records from the Xia, Shang and Western Zhou dynasties have accumulated some medical experience, and acupuncture, moxibustion, tuina, channeling, tonics and external treatment have been applied to medical practice; during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States period, a hundred schools of thought contended, doctors and wizards separated, and famous medical practitioners such as Doctor Slow, Doctor He, Doctor Gravity, Wen Zhi and Bian Magpie appeared, and the Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine had a profound impact on the development of Chinese medicine, and still serves as a guide for Chinese medicine today.
During the Qin and Han dynasties, three medical classics, namely the Yellow Emperor’s Classic of 81 Difficulties, Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica and Zhang Zhongjing’s Treatise on Typhoid Miscellaneous Diseases, were introduced, and basic Chinese medicine, pharmacology and clinical medicine entered a new stage.
Chun Yu Yi, Hua Tuo, Zhang Zhong Jing and other famous doctors emerged. Chun Yu Yi’s main achievement was to write the first medical case in the history of Chinese medicine – “Diagnosis Book”, Hua Tuo was proficient in internal, external, gynecological, pediatric, acupuncture and moxibustion, and was especially good at surgery.
“Hua Tuo was a master of internal medicine, surgery, gynecology, pediatrics, acupuncture and moxibustion. The principles of evidence-based treatment established by Zhang Zhongjing’s Treatise on Typhoid Miscellaneous Diseases are the basic principles of clinical Chinese medicine and the soul of Chinese medicine. Later generations called “Treatise on Typhoid and Miscellaneous Diseases” as “the ancestor of prescription books” and the prescriptions listed in the book as “classic prescriptions”. During this period, clinical medicine such as typhoid, miscellaneous diseases and surgery reached a new height, and the first peak in the history of Chinese medicine appeared.
During the period of the Three Kingdoms, the Jin Dynasty and the North and South Dynasties, pulse science, acupuncture and moxibustion, drug prescriptions, wound medicine, health care and other aspects of fruitful, a large number of famous medical experts, Wang Shuhe compiled China’s earliest extant pulse science monograph – “Pulse Classic”, Huangfu Qui life to write as a profession, the “acupuncture and moxibustion A Yi Jing” is China’s first monograph on acupuncture, he He is known as the “originator of acupuncture and moxibustion”. Ge Hong, who was a teacher, chemist, and pharmacist, wrote the first clinical manual of first aid in the history of Chinese medicine, “The Formula for Saving Patients after the Elbow”. Tao Hongjing, the “Chancellor of the Mountain”, created the first method of classifying drugs that is still in use today, which became a milestone in the history of the development of Chinese herbalism. Xu Zhicai was a great master in pharmacy and obstetrics and gynecology, and Lei However’s “Lei Gong’s Treatise on Concoction” was the first comprehensive summary of Chinese medicine concoction technology, and Chinese medicine concoction officially became a discipline.
During the Sui and Tang dynasties, Chinese medicine developed comprehensively, and books on medicine such as “Treatise on the Origin of the Diseases and Their Disorders”, “Thousand Gold Essentials”, “Thousand Gold Winged Formula”, “Secret Essentials of Wai Tai”, “Newly Revised Materia Medica” and “Four Seas Classical Formula” emerged, and “Treatise on the Origin of the Diseases and Their Disorders” compiled by Chao Yuanfang was the first monograph in China’s history that specialized in the origin of diseases and their symptoms; Zhen Quan painted “Ming Tang Human Form”, and wrote “Notes on the Needle Scriptures”, “Needle Formula”, and “The Fortunes of the Pulse”. He was a giant in acupuncture and moxibustion during the Sui and Tang dynasties; Sun Simiao was a superstar in the history of Chinese medicine, leaving indelible merits in the history of Chinese and foreign medicine; Wang To made outstanding contributions to the preservation of ancient medical texts and summarized the medical achievements before the Tang dynasty; Jianzhen was hailed by the Japanese people as “the father of culture” and “the ancestor of Ritsu”. The “Food Therapeutic Materia Medica” by Mon Monk is the earliest surviving monograph on food therapy in the world and is regarded as the originator of food therapy in the world; Wang Bing has studied the doctrine of luck and his theoretical insights are the basis of the doctrine of luck for future generations; Zan Yin was a gynecologist and obstetrician of the Tang Dynasty and his book “Jingxue Natal Treasure” is the earliest surviving monograph on gynecology and obstetrics in China; Li Jin is an important member of the Li Martyr was one of the important lyricists of the “Flower School”, and also a pharmacologist, who wrote “Herbs of Sea Medicine”, which “recorded many famous fragrant and exotic herbs from overseas” and contributed to the exchange of Chinese and foreign medicine. The Sui and Tang dynasties were the second peak in the history of Chinese medicine.
During the two Song dynasties, Chinese medicine developed rapidly. The basic medicine such as anatomy, etiology and diagnosis was deepened, and the clinical medicine, health science and forensic medicine of various disciplines were opened up to a broader field, and the exchange of Chinese and foreign medicine was frequent. Xu Shuwei was one of the leading researchers of the Treatise on Typhoid in the Song Dynasty and elaborated on and added to the theory of differentiation and treatment; Wang Weiyi made great contributions to the development of acupuncture and moxibustion medicine, and the design and manufacture of the bronze figures of acupuncture and moxibustion was a major innovation in the history of medicine; Su Song led the completion of the first book of materia medica with diagrams that has been handed down to this day, the Tang Shenwei made significant contributions to the development of pharmacology and the collection of folk remedies, and Pang Anchang wrote the six volumes of the General Treatise on Typhoid Fever, advocating the distinction between warm diseases and typhoid fever, which was a major development in the science of extrinsic diseases. In his later years, Guo Yong collected a lot of medical books and compiled the Treatise on Typhoid Fever to fill in the gaps in the Treatise on Typhoid Fever; Chen Ziming was an outstanding expert in obstetrics and gynecology in the history of Chinese medicine. Chen Ziming was an outstanding expert in obstetrics and gynecology in the history of Chinese medicine. He compiled “The Complete Good Formula for Women”, which is the earliest monograph on obstetrics and gynecology in the history of China; Qian Yi was the first famous expert in pediatrics in the history of Chinese medicine, and wrote “The Straight Guide to Pediatric Medicine”, which is the first existing monograph on pediatrics in China; Song Ci is respected as the originator of forensic medicine in the world, and his book “The Collection of Wrongdoings” is the earliest monograph on forensic medicine in the world. During the period of Liao, Xia, Jin and Yuan, when the two Song dynasties were unified with the Yuan dynasty, the fire-heat school represented by Liu Wansu, the internal organs discriminatory school represented by Zhang Yuan, the evil-attacking school represented by Zhang Congzheng, the spleen and stomach school represented by Li Dongyuan, the yin-evidence school represented by Wang Haogu and the phase fire school represented by Zhu Danxi, the contentions of each school pushed the medical academics of this period to a new climax. In addition to the above-mentioned medical scholars, Cheng Wuji, Zhang Zihe, Sli Boren and Luo Tianyi also made contributions to the development of Chinese medicine.
In the Ming Dynasty, Wu Youxian’s Treatise on Plague and Li Shizhen’s Compendium of Materia Medica were the two wonders of the Chinese medical forest. The rise of the Typhoid School and the rise of the School of Warmth and Heat brought the contention of schools to a new level. Dai Sigong’s treatment of illnesses was mostly miraculous, spreading the doctrine of Danxi; Lou Ying’s treatment of illnesses was mostly miraculous, and the folk “Gods and Goddesses”; Xue Ji’s mastery of internal and external gynecology and pediatrics, establishing his own family’s words; Li Shizhen’s “Compendium of Materia Medica” was the “Great Canon of Oriental Medicine”, and “The Pulse of the Endangered Lake” was the Chinese medicine The book is a rich medical book; Sun Yikui is a person with many experiments and academic theories; Miao Xiyong is proficient in medicine and has many miraculous effects in treating diseases; Wang Kentang is a famous medical scientist with comprehensive development and the “Rules for the Treatment of Evidence” is a monumental medical masterpiece; Chen Shigong is an outstanding Chinese surgeon and Zhang Jingyue is the founder of the warm tonic school of Chinese medicine. He was a representative of the warm tonic school of Chinese medicine; Tan Yunxian was a famous female gynecologist in the Ming Dynasty; Qin Changxian became a master of medicine after a long illness. Each one of them is like a shining star.
The Qing Dynasty was a period when medicine tended to be popular and sublimely developed. Ye Tianshi diagnosed illnesses and understood the source of disease; cubic method is not adhered to; medicine has a miraculous effect; treatment is often more adaptable. People called him “Zhongjing, Yuanhua first-class people also”. He was first of all the founder of the school of therapeutics. Xue Xue was an expert in the treatment of dampness and fever, and together with Ye Tian Shi, they pioneered the study of plague; Wu Youxian founded the doctrine of warm disease, which pioneered the study of infectious diseases in China; Wu Jutong’s “The Article of Warming Disease” was a milestone in the study of warm disease; Wang Mengying pushed the study of warm fever to a new stage. Wang Qingren’s “Correction of the Medical Forest” reflects the bold pioneering spirit of the Chinese medical profession. Fu Qingzhu was the sage of gynecological medicine; Xu Daqun was a great medical practitioner of the Qing Dynasty who learned from no teacher; Chen Xiuyuan was the promoter of the popularization of Chinese medical education; Wu Qian was a royal doctor of excellent character and learning; Huang Yuanqing was a master of therapeutic diseases with a wonderful hand. Each of them had their own achievements. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, Chinese medicine reached another new peak.
Mingjiu shows the glorious achievements and development of ancient Chinese medicine by telling the stories of some famous doctors who succeeded and became successful in the past generations, showing the life experience, struggle process, moral quality, dedication and historical contribution of famous doctors, giving people the inspiration of success and the influence of dedication and cultivation. From one side, it enables more people to understand the history of Chinese medicine, the achievements of Chinese medicine, and the important position of Chinese medicine culture in the whole Chinese traditional culture.