Stephen William Hawking, professor of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at the University of Cambridge, is one of the most important theorists of general relativity and cosmology of our time. He is one of the world’s greatest living scientists and is also known as the “King of the Universe”.
Famous scientist — Hawking
Speaking of Hawking, a little bit of scientific knowledge of the people should know. People saw hawking’s remarkable scientific sharing, but few felt the pain of his disabled body. The reason why I introduce Hawking is to let more people can learn hawking’s indomitable scientific spirit. His indomitable vitality and tenacity of willpower are enough to make anyone awe-inspiring!
Hawking is keen to know the ins and outs of everything, so when he saw a novelty always likes to dismantle it, to understand the structure of each parts are up – but he is often hard to put it back, because his hands and feet much less flexible than mind, even the words written in the class is famous scribble.
Hawking entered Oxford University to study physics at the age of 17. He was still not a studious student, and this attitude was consistent with that of the other students of the postwar era when the youth were bored with everything and felt that there was nothing worth striving for. Hawking hangs out at school with his classmates, drinks, joins the regatta club, and is likely to become a mediocre clerk or teacher if things go on like this. However, the disease appeared.
The disease appeared
Since childhood, sports have never been Hawking’s forte, and almost all ball games have been out of his league. By his third year at Oxford, Hawking noticed that he was becoming clumsier, falling once or twice for no apparent reason. Once, for no apparent reason, he fell suddenly down the stairs, and was immediately unconscious and nearly dead.
It wasn’t until 1962, after Hawking was a graduate student at Cambridge, that his mother noticed something unusual about her son. Hawking, who just celebrated his 21st birthday, spent two weeks in hospital undergoing various tests before being diagnosed with Lou Gehrig’s disease. The doctor told him that his body would become more and more disordered. Only his heart, lungs and brain would work, and eventually his heart and lungs would fail, too. Hawking was sentenced to two years to live. That was in 1963.
At first, the disease progressed quite rapidly. Hawking was understandably devastated. He almost gave up all his studies and research because he thought he would never live long enough to finish his master’s thesis. However, a woman appeared.
The wheelchair appeared
Hawking’s illness gradually worsened. In 1970, when he was no longer able to get around on his own, Hawking began using a wheelchair. To this day, he has never left it. The fact that the doctor’s two-year death sentence did not happen is testament to the never-ending nature of science, especially when it comes to neuronal diseases, because we know far less about the brain than we do about the universe. Brain, still waiting for human development!Forever in a wheelchair, Hawking, extremely tenacious work and life.
In March 1991, while returning to his Berlin apartment in a wheelchair, Hawking was hit by a car while crossing the street. His left arm was broken, his head was slashed and he needed 13 stitches, but 48 hours later he was back at work. On another trip to a country house with friends, he took a sharp turn uphill and his wheelchair toppled over. Only to find the master of gravity overturned by earth’s gravity in a bush.
Despite his growing disability, Hawking tried to live as an ordinary person and accomplish whatever he could. He was even playful — it was funny how he continued to “rampage” his wheelchair on the way to the office with his only moving finger, even after he was completely unable to move; In Moscow hotels he suggested dancing, and was a wonderful sight to see him wheeling around the hall; He rolled his wheelchair over Prince Charles’s toe while showing off during their meeting. Of course, Hawking also tasted the consequences of “free” action, the master of quantum gravity, many times in the weak gravity around, fell out of the wheelchair, fortunately, each time he stubbornly “stand up”.
In 1985, Hawking lost the ability to speak. The only instrument with which he expressed his thoughts was a computer voice synthesizer. With only a few moving fingers, he uses a special mouse to select letters and words on a computer screen to make sentences, and then plays sounds through the computer. Hawking typically takes six minutes to produce a sentence like this, and 10 days to synthesize an hour-long recorded speech. In 1988, Hawking wrote his landmark popular science book, a Brief History of Time. By January 1995, a Brief History of Time had been translated into dozens of languages and published in almost every country in the world. Its circulation had exceeded 25 million copies, making it a milestone in scientific writing.
To this day, the tenacious Hawking, still a professor at Cambridge University, still struggles to get to work without the help of nurses and with only one finger he can use. In Britain, in Cambridge, any appearance of Hawking is a wonder of life. No one took the initiative to help him, because people do not have the heart to disturb a life is trying to challenge the limit! When his wheelchair appeared anywhere in Cambridge university, people would watch him in silence, watching his every difficult movement! Hawking has become a spirit of Cambridge, a banner of science, and a miracle of life. I believe that everyone who knows Hawking will get infinite life power and spiritual nourishment from him!
Lou Gehrig’s disease
Lou Gehrig’s disease, also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS (OMIM 105400) is a motor neurone disease, is one of the four most common neurodegenerative diseases (the other three are Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease). The incidence of this disease is about 5 people per 100,000, the ratio of male to female patients is about 3:1, and about 10% of patients have a family history of genetic disease. It can be inherited either autosomal dominant or recessive. The disease is also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, after the famous American baseball player Lou Gehrig who suffered from it. Renowned British physicist Stephen Hawking also suffers from this disease.
This disease involves either upper motor neurons (brain, brainstem, spinal cord) or lower motor neurons (cranial nucleus, spinal cord anterior horn cells). More than 30 ~ 50 years old, the onset of paralysis is characterized by upper limb peripheral paralysis, lower limb central paralysis, upper and lower motor neurons mixed, symmetry damage. This is manifested by muscular atrophy in the affected area. It usually starts with hand muscle weakness and atrophy (claw-shaped hand) and gradually spreads to the contralateral side. Slow onset, presented progressive development, more than no sensory barriers. The body is like being gradually frozen, commonly known as “ALS person”. Bulbous paralysis appeared in the late course of the disease, manifested as atrophy of tongue muscle and tremor, posterior group of cranial nerve damage appeared dysarthria, dysphagia, drinking cough and so on. Often due to breathing difficulties, lung infection, systemic failure and death. The natural course of the disease is about 3 years on average, the rapid progression of the onset of death within 1 year, the progression of the disease can last about 10 years. Hawking has been sick for more than 40 years, far beyond human imagination, because of his extraordinary willpower, but also because he is Hawking. Because he knows how to cooperate with treatment, and has enough medical expenses, any advanced treatment can be tried.
Hawking, he is a miracle!
How to treat
No effective therapy, mainly symptomatic. This is why even the great physicist Hawking can not cure the reason. So, this disease is still a very big challenge for human beings. Open the network, there are still a lot of unscrupulous advertisements that say that certain hospital can completely cure this disease. Brag! Anyone with any common sense knows that’s not going to happen, at least not for now. So patients must not be deceived, of course, the disease is still rare in China, even in the world is not much, so the victims of the population is less. But in any case, improve their identification of false advertising, or need.
There is no cure for this disease, but many scientists are working hard on it. For example, Japanese scientists have successfully controlled the condition in animal experiments using hepatocyte proliferation factor, raising hopes of overcoming the disease. According to the Yomiuri Shimbun, Osaka University Associate professor Funetsu, Nakamura Professor And Tohoku University Professor Yamataeto and others found that hepatocyte proliferation factor not only has the effect of liver cell proliferation, but also has the function of preventing cell death, so they concluded that it also has the effect of preventing nerve cell death. The researchers first implanted the ALS gene into some mouse nerve cells. Then they implanted the gene that produces liver cell proliferation. Mating with other mice produced two types of mice: mice with only the ALS gene and hybrid mice with genes that, in addition to the ALS gene, produce liver cell proliferation. After eight months of separation, the researchers found that the former had lost 60 percent of their motor neurons and had stumbled. The latter had a 30 percent reduction in motor neurons, little change in motor ability, and lived one month longer than the former, proportionally equivalent to six years of human life. ALs affects about 5,000 people in Japan alone, and there is currently little treatment. “If the new research results are applied, it will not only preserve people’s motor function, but also extend people’s life span, and help research into other difficult neurological diseases,” she said.