Once heroin poisoning, serious cases will be killed. After taking or injecting heroin poisoning, the serious person will immediately coma and need to be rescued by injecting naloxone“ If the rescue is not timely, the comatose person may die within 2 hours. Heroin is the devil, and now everyone knows it. However, the development of history is always bumpy.
The emergence of heroin
More than 100 years ago, Bayer company in Germany synthesized a suspicious drug and tested it on some people who didn’t know it. After a few experiments, the company hastily sold this thing as a medicine and boasted it as a universal medicine to cure all diseases. This medicine has become a best-selling drug in the world. One of the reasons why the German company made a fortune is that the drug is addictive. Here, I have to mention hormones. Hormones are also a good thing, but if abused, the so-called all inclusive treatment will do great harm to mankind.
A few years later, no one in the company was willing to talk about the drug again. Now this substance is no longer the product of the company. It is the masterpiece of the devil. Once widely used drugs are now declared illegal in countries all over the world; The person who made it was identified as a criminal; The people who sell it will lose their heads in some parts of the world; Those who consume it are excluded from the edge of society as people waiting to die.
After the glory, let’s go back to more than 100 years ago.
On August 21, 1897, Felix Hoffman, a chemist of Bayer company, synthesized a substance called diacetylmorphine in the laboratory. His bosses were overjoyed. They thought it could replace the addictive painkiller morphine. At that time, morphine was the best painkiller in the world. Many cancer patients had unbearable pain. Only morphine was effective. Unfortunately, morphine was addictive. When it was confirmed that some fish, seahorses and cats used in the experiment could still live after swallowing these drugs, the family members of the company, including children, also began to try to take them. No one was dead or addicted. So less than a year after the synthesis, the company put it on the market without a thorough clinical trial.
Bayer’s bosses thought the invention of the substance was a “heroic” achievement, so they took the name (“heroin” means “hero” in German). Heroin and hero, are they very similar?? Do you know how high heroin was regarded as a divine medicine at that time? The story follows the most absurd page in the history of medicine. Until 1930, Bayer company was still selling high-purity brand-name heroin. All over the world are cheering for this powerful and widely used drug, and thousands of patients are competing to take it. A long time later, it was gradually regarded as a demon drug.
Michelle de Riedel, a 53 year old pharmacist in Berlin, tells the story of the emergence, marketing and final decline of heroin as a drug. Riedel described a surprising era when the world seemed to be upside down and everyone was crazy. In this “good old time”, Germany was the largest heroin producer in the world. The presidents of Bayer company proudly said, “heroin is really a good business.” Most doctors praise it as a high-quality and safe drug with magical efficacy, which can stop cough, relieve pain and treat all other diseases. Drugs? relieve a cough? Remember federal cough water? The function of federal cough water is to stop cough. Especially teenagers must treat it correctly. They must not drink it as a drink. Abuse will be addictive, and excessive use will cause damage to internal organs and nervous system, or cause other malignant reactions. In view of the addictive and central excitatory effects of codeine phosphate and ephedrine hydrochloride, the World Health Organization and China’s drug regulatory authorities have managed the federal cough water and other compound preparations containing codeine below 2 ‰ as prescription drugs, and they will not become addicted when taken normally. Food development is tortuous.
Heroin is consumed by infants, adults and the elderly. It is taken in the form of powder, mixture or suppository, and women also use tampons containing heroin. Heroin is everywhere – in order to get it, you don’t have to take risks to commit a crime. Moreover, Bayer’s heroin is well stocked in pharmacies. Instead of being wrapped in tinfoil, it is packed in exquisite medicine bottles. One bottle has 25 grams. Today, this dose is enough to cause dozens of people to overdose and die alone in the toilet of the railway station.
Why is heroin rampant
What’s the matter with Bayer and its doctors? Was it true that everyone thought heroin was so perfect that they gave it to babies as a cough medicine without any scruples? Do the bosses of Bayer company know that this kind of thing is harmful and still sell it recklessly?
When the drug was on the market, there was nothing unusual about it except great success. Only a year later, Bayer sold heroin to more than 20 countries, mainly to the United States. As early as 1902, the profit of heroin accounted for 5% of the whole pharmaceutical industry, and the sales volume increased sharply – 45 kg in 1898 and 783 kg 10 years later. Because Bayer did not patent heroin (the substance is well known in the scientific literature), other companies joined the profitable business: Sandoz (now Novartis), Roche, Boehringer Ingelheim, GEA, Knoll and Merck.
The great success of this drug is also due to Bayer’s cruel business methods. From the beginning, a few unyielding pharmacists said that the drug was toxic and addictive. Carl Duisberg, the company’s agent at that time, asked his subordinates to “shut up” if anyone dared to say that heroin was not a safe drug.
In the absence of a definite basis, Bayer noisily paved the way for heroin. The company gives free heroin trials and new professional publications beneficial to the company to doctors all over the world, and purposefully entrusts those doctors who are only interested in profit to do some research. In the advertisement of the German doctor, Bayer asked doctors to treat the rampant morphine addiction with “recognized excellent” heroin, saying that heroin is the next generation of morphine anyway and will not make people addicted.
Some doctors are crazy about prescribing heroin to patients as if they were addicted. One doctor wrote in a professional magazine: the value of this drug has become higher because it is “absolutely free of poison”; Another doctor cheered that heroin was “the safest and best of all cough remedies”. There are good people and bad people in every industry. Of course, doctors are no exception. Once the doctor who has the prescription right becomes not objective, pragmatic and mercenary, the result is often very terrible.
But heroin doesn’t just cure coughs. Bayer soon found that heroin was effective for all diseases. Since 1906, Bayer has recommended the use of heroin in the treatment of pain, depression, bronchitis, asthma and gastric cancer. Riedel said: “among the diseases known at that time, only a few were not within the scope of heroin.” Now, we all know how ignorant these are. More is the performance of businessmen’s interests.
Healthy people can also find a lot of fun in heroin. The Mountaineering Club recommends that members of the club take it before climbing, because it can make them breathe more smoothly and climb higher. Bayer’s drug is also popular in madhouses. In 1900, doctors in Naples psychiatric hospital prescribed heroin to patients, recording that it had “lasting calming effect” and “there were even several cured cases”; Russian psychiatrists use heroin to dispel “soul pain”; A doctor in Dusseldorf, Germany, used it to relieve “erection pain”. Heroin has become a panacea and can be used at any time, as well as for the poor gynecologist miltel: in 1899, she was lying in the Maria tracia gynecological hospital in Vienna because of “women’s desire for men”. Her condition was relieved only after taking heroin.
The side effects of heroin recorded by doctors were dizziness, dizziness and constipation, nothing else. There are only a few doctors who warned of the risk of addiction when heroin came out. Dr. Greenwich, who prescribed heroin to more than 2000 patients, said there was no need to worry about “morbid desire after taking drugs”.
This statement is in sharp contrast to what children learned about heroin in school decades later. How did the teacher and headmaster teach us when we were at school? Don’t touch heroin (white powder), or your family will be destroyed! Why did people in the era of William II not become addicted, but their great grandchildren become addicted? What is the difference between the emperor’s people and today’s drug addicts?