The ancient East is the cradle of human culture, mainly referring to Egypt, Babylon, India and China. These countries made the transition from primitive to slave societies earlier than other countries. The Egyptians created their civilizations in the Middle Nile, the Babylonians in the Mesopotamian plains of the Tigris and Euphrates river basins, the Indians in the Indus and Ganges river basins, and the Chinese in the Yellow River basin. The development of productivity in slave societies led to a further division of labor and the emergence of professional doctors.
Under slavery, medicine was only a tool of the slave owner. In the 18th century B.C., the Code of Law, developed through King Hammurabi of Babylon, stipulated that “a slave who dies or is disabled by a doctor’s operation shall compensate the slave owner for all or half of the slave’s value; if the disability or death is that of a freedman, the doctor’s two hands shall be cut off as a punishment. ” This fully reflects the social relations of the time. Due to the low productivity and lack of scientific knowledge in ancient times, people were not yet able to recognize the real causes of diseases, and after the emergence of primitive religious concepts in human society, the phenomenon of diseases was attributed to ghosts and gods. Medicine in this period was very religious, with a mixture of religious and non-religious empirical medicine. The Chinese “Shanhaijing” recorded that “Wupeng” and “Wuyang” were “divine doctors”.
In ancient Babylon and Egypt, there were two kinds of doctors, one was a monk, whose treatment method was incantation and prayer, and the other was a doctor with practical experience, who was a commoner.
Ancient Oriental medicine also gradually accumulated many valuable experiences in healing. According to reliable sources, around the fourth century A.D., India was able to perform operations such as amputation, ophthalmology and caesarean section. In Egypt, treatments such as emesis, diuresis and sweating were used early on, and enemas were known, the latter of which actually played a role in healing, purging or expelling intestinal spoilage.
In China, the famous physician Bian Magi appeared as early as the fifth century B.C. and was the first to use the four methods of looking, smelling, asking and cutting to diagnose diseases. The Nei Jing, the earliest Chinese medical text, has a holistic concept, the doctrine of the five elements of yin and yang, and the doctrine of the internal organs and meridians, all three of which combine to form a theoretical system of dialectical treatment. During the Qin and Han dynasties, clinical therapeutics had a new development, and the pharmacology “Shennong Ben Cao Jing” appeared.
In particular, Zhang Zhongjing’s masterpiece on clinical therapeutics, “Treatise on Typhoid and Miscellaneous Diseases”, guided Chinese medicine clinics for two thousand years. In the late Eastern Han Dynasty, Hua Tuo, an outstanding figure in surgery, created the method of general anesthesia with drugs, which allowed him to perform abdominal surgery. During the Northern and Southern Dynasties, Wu Shuhe’s “Pulse Classic” laid the foundation for pulse diagnosis, and Li Shang said that the “Acupuncture and Moxibustion A B Classic” played a pioneering role in the history of acupuncture and moxibustion. During the Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties, the famous doctor Chao Yuanfang wrote the Treatise on the Origin of Diseases, which created the tendency to innovate the theory of etiology and pathology and was a monumental work. In terms of pharmacology, the world’s first pharmacopoeia, Xinxiu Bencao, was written in 659 AD.
Sun Simiao, a great medical scientist of the Tang Dynasty, compiled the “Thousand Gold Formula”, which drew on the achievements of ancient and modern medicine and served as a successor to the past. His writings laid the foundation for gynecology and pediatrics. Coldness in the Jin and Song dynasties. The great school of attacking down, tonifying up and nourishing Yin and concave has been influenced until modern times. Li Shizhen (1518-1593), a great medical scientist of the Ming Dynasty, wrote the “Compendium of Materia Medica”, which made great contributions to pharmacology and biology and influenced the whole world.