From the seventh to the sixth century B.C., Greece entered the slave society from the primitive society. Greek medicine was the basis for the development of medicine in all of Europe after Rome, and the medical symbols used by Europeans today, such as the hand and the dildo, are also derived from Greek medicine. The Greek medicine’s generation of friends for Hippocrates Hippocrates（460-377 BC)， reflects the ancient Greek lipid thinkers by the development of the dialectical point of view, from a holistic and unified point of view to team knowledge of the human body and disease phenomena, Han Kuang four body fluid pathology said “.
It is believed that the life of the organism is determined by four body fluids: blood, mucus, yellow bile and black bile, the four original essence of the different kinds of cooperation, each body fluid and a certain “temperament” to adapt, each person’s temperament is determined by his body dominant kind of body he, such as blood from the heart, blood accounted for the promotion of potential, then belong to 1: polycystic. The four body fluids in balance, the body is healthy: dysregulation is sick. Two B.C., the Romans occupied the original Greek region of the Baltic Peninsula, the inheritance of ancient Greek medicine. Roman medicine was developed. The famous Roman physician Galen (1291 AD), who was engaged in animal dissection for many years, made contributions to the development of medicine. Ancient Rome had a high level of public works. The use of slave labor, the construction of city waterways (with pipes from outside the city into the city), sewers, and the field, the prohibition of burial in the city, and attention to drinking water sanitation.
In short, when there were human beings, there was medicine. The origin of medicinal knowledge is the accumulation of collective human experience, arising from the struggle with diseases. The process of development of simple medical knowledge into medicine and pharmacology was closely related to the local philosophical ideas of the time, such as Chinese medicine was influenced by the idea of yin and yang and the five elements, and Greek medicine was influenced by the idea of the four elements.
The original slave states of ancient medicine arose on the sides of the great river basins. The Egyptians created their cultural enterprise in the Nile basin, the Babylonians in the Tigris and Euphrates basins, the Indians in the Indus and Ganges basins, and the Chinese in the Yellow River basin.
In slave societies, productivity took a giant step forward from primitive societies. Slave labor made possible the division of labor and created the conditions for further cultural and scientific development, which led to the emergence of “professional doctors” in slave societies. One of the outstanding cultural achievements of the slave society was the invention of writing. With the invention of writing, the ancient slave states left behind a large number of medical texts.
As slave societies developed and consolidated, the religious dimension of medicine increased. In the Chinese “Shanhaijing”, it is written that “Wupeng”, “Wugai” and “Wuyang” were all divine doctors; the medicine of India, Egypt and Babylon was also covered with a strong religious color. Most of the medical literature in slave societies came from the hands of monks. Therefore, these documents contain many superstitious elements.
Around 4000-3000 B.C., Egypt had formed a slave society and had a fairly developed culture. They believed that everything was ruled by the gods, so monks were also responsible for removing disasters and diseases, and religious and non-religious empirical medicine were mixed with each other. In order to expel the demons from the body, they used vomiting, drainage, diuresis, sweating, etc., and enemas were known. The rich Egyptians, because of their superstition to preserve the remains of the dead permanently, had been practicing the method of drying the corpse since about 3000 B.C. The corpse was painted with spices and medicines and was called “mummified”.
This is a great help to the understanding of the human body structure, and has become a valuable material for the modern study of ancient pathology, in addition to the ancient Egyptian medical books written in papyrus, there are 5 or 6 existing. The famous one is the Kahan Papyrus discovered by British archaeologist F. Petrie in Egypt from 1888 to 1,890, which was written in 2000 to 1800 B.C. and is about gynecology; Smith’s Papyrus was written in about 1700 B.C. and is about surgery; Ebers’ Papyrus was written in about 1550 B.C. and is about general medical science.
Medicine in India
India formed a slave society in the late 4000 BC to early 3000 BC. The Anaveda, which records medicine and hygiene, is a later (6th century B.C.) work. According to historical records, surgery was well developed in India, and amputations, ophthalmic surgery, nose formation, fetal foot reversal, and caesarean section could be performed around the 4th century A.D. at the latest; the Indians used animal and mineral medicines in addition to the application of plant medicines. As there are many poisonous snakes, there are also doctors in India who specialize in treating snake bites.
Indian medicine believes that health is the result of the normal cooperation of the three primary qualities of the organism – gas, mucus and bile. Later, the “four limbs and fluids” of Greek medicine influenced India, so that the original three body fluids increased the blood, becoming the “four major” doctrine.
The most famous Indian surgeon in ancient times was Myojin (born around the 5th century B.C.), and the most famous internal medicine doctor was Jaloka (born around the 1st century A.D.).
Babylonian and Assyrian medicine
At the end of 3000 BC and the beginning of 2000 BC, in the middle of the two river basins, Babylon formed a slave state. It was not until 700 B.C. that Assyria conquered Babylon.
Babylonian and Assyrian astrology were closely related to medicine. They believed that the body structure, in line with the operation of the celestial bodies, this concept of the human body is a small universe, and ancient China is quite similar. They valued the liver as the main organ of the body, and used it for divination (liver divination), and examined the liver of animals used for sacrifices in great detail. Around 1700 B.C., there was already the Code of Law formulated by Hammurabi, the king of Babylon, which contained provisions on medical law and was the earliest medical law in the world. It stated, “If a slave dies or is blinded by a doctor’s operation, the doctor shall compensate the slave owner for all or half the value of the slave, and if the blind or dead person is a gentleman, both hands of the doctor shall be cut off as punishment.” In Babylon, as in Egypt, there were two kinds of physicians, monks, whose cure was incantations and prayers, and physicians with practical experience, who were commoners.