Bacteriology is a branch of microbiology. It mainly studies the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, ecology, genetics, evolution, classification and application of bacteria. The main function of Bacteriology is to study the immunity of the human body.
In 1676, Leeuwenhoek first discovered the bacteria in the mouth, which was called “micro organisms” at that time. In 1861, Pasteur’s experiment with his famous gooseneck bottle strongly proved the existence of bacteria in the air. According to his research on fermentation, he also pointed out that there are many kinds of bacteria in the air. Their life activities can cause the fermentation of organic matter and produce all kinds of useful products. Some products can also be subsequently fermented by other bacteria to produce unexpected products.
There are also human and animal pathogens in the air, which can cause various diseases. In order to eliminate miscellaneous bacteria, Pasteur created pasteurization in 1886. In 1877, British chemist Tyndall established intermittent sterilization or Tyndall sterilization.
Aseptic surgery was founded in 1876. In the same year, German Koch isolated anthrax and put forward the famous Koch law. In order to understand the difference between Vibrio cholerae and other Vibrio that cannot be distinguished in morphology, he carried out physiological and biochemical research, which led to the development of medical bacteriology.
Around 1880, Pasteur developed vaccines against chicken cholera, anthrax and swine erysipelas, which laid the foundation of immunology. Koch first obtained a single colony of anthrax by plate method, which confirmed that the morphology and function of bacteria were relatively constant. Since the initial victory of the simplex theory, a bacterial classification system based on morphology and size was established, and then the physiological and biochemical characteristics were used as the basis for classification, which gradually enriched the content of bacterial taxonomy.
In the last 20 years of the 19th century, the development of Bacteriology went beyond the scope of medical bacteriology. Industrial bacteriology and agricultural bacteriology were also established and developed rapidly. From 1885 to 1890, vinogratsky prepared pure inorganic medium, isolated autotrophic bacteria (nitrifying bacteria, sulfide bacteria, etc.) with silica gel plate, and developed a “rich culture method”, which can easily select the required bacteria from the natural environment.
From 1889 to 1901, bayelink successfully isolated rhizobia and nitrogen fixing bacteria, which confirmed the role of bacteria in material transformation, improving soil fertility and controlling plant diseases. At the beginning of the 20th century, bacteriologists made great progress in the study of infectious pathogens, immunity, chemical drugs and bacterial chemical activities. It was basically proved that the fermentation mechanism of bacteria was roughly the same as that of vertebrate muscle glycolysis, and the demand of bacteria for growth factors was basically the same as that of vertebrate animals for vitamins.
In 1943, del Bruck analyzed the mutants of E. coli; In 1944, avery found that transformation was determined by DNA in pneumococcus; In 1957, mu xiazhou produced amino acids by fermentation; After producing insulin with E. coli, Gilbert produced human interferon with bacteria in 1980, which promoted the research of bacteriology to the level of molecular biology.
Bacteria have the characteristics of small volume, rapid reproduction, strong vitality, many kinds and easy variation. They can be studied and produced under artificial control. They are an important research tool in modern biology and other disciplines.