Modern medicine:In the late feudal society, handicraft industry and commerce developed, handicraft factories appeared, and the growth of productivity also promoted the search for new markets. Columbus discovered the new world in 1492, da Gama discovered the Cape of good hope in 1497, and Magellan circled the world from 1519 to 1522. Many drugs (such as opium, camphor and rosin) were introduced into Europe from the East. After the discovery of America, Europe also had Cinchona, guaiaca and cocoa fruit.
Due to the rise of capitalism, bourgeois intellectuals were first formed in Italy. Their characteristic is that they dare to challenge the church thought and oppose the shackles of religious superstition. Their slogan is: “I am a man, I should understand everything about man”, so as to oppose the rule of theology.
On the one hand, they spread new culture, on the other hand, they tried to study and imitate the culture of ancient Greece. Therefore, this period is called “Renaissance”. Copernicus published the theory of celestial bodies in 1543, which was the beginning of the Renaissance in the history of science.
① Medical revolution. In the Renaissance, the trend of doubting dogma and opposing authority rose. As a result, there was a medical revolution represented by Paracelsus (1493 ~ 1541).
Medical schools in the Middle Ages mainly talked about Avicenna’s medical code and the works of Galen and Hippocrates. The teacher explained everything according to the book, followed the rules and was lifeless. The frenzy of the Renaissance soon spread to the field of medicine. Palachesus pointed out that the life process of the human body is a chemical process.
When he taught at the University of Basel, he advocated writing books and lectures in popular German, so that medicine could be easily accepted by the public, which was a great reform. He attached importance to practice, opposed the cumbersome scholasticism, and opposed the stubborn tradition and authority concept in the middle ages. He said: “no one can become a doctor without science and experience. My works are not quoted from ancient authoritative works, but written by the greatest teacher – experience”. He bravely fought against stereotypes and blind worship, and publicly burned the works of Galen and avisenna.
② Establishment of human anatomy. In ancient times, people believed that the body was the place where the soul lived. In feudal society, all nationalities prohibited autopsy without exception. Therefore, human anatomy could not be developed. In the medical books of this era, such as the anatomy written by Galen, almost all anatomical maps were drawn based on animal viscera. On the contrary, the culture of the Renaissance took man as the center of attention. In the field of medicine, people first paid attention to the study of the structure of the human body.
First of all, Da Vinci of Italy innovated anatomy. He believed that as a realistic painter, it was necessary to understand anatomy, especially bones and muscles, so he engaged in human anatomy.
However, he has drawn more than 700 anatomical maps, and today there are more than 150. Most of the paintings are accurate and beautiful. He first questioned Garen’s anatomy. He once blew air into the trachea, but no matter how hard he tried, he could not see the heart expand, so he came to the conclusion that Galen’s theory that the lung is connected with the heart is wrong. He also checked the structure and shape of the heart. The heart map he drew was much more correct than the previous pictures. In addition, he also found the activity and nature of the aortic root valve, proving that the function of the valve is to prevent blood reflux. The cardiovascular problems he mentioned soon attracted the attention of medical scientists.
Writing a textbook on human anatomy based on direct observation was completed by A. visari. Visari first studied at the University of Lewan and then transferred to the University of Paris. At that time, when the two universities explained autopsy, the professors still gave lectures in high chairs, assistants and craftsmen operated under the stage, and only three or four autopsies were allowed in a year. Visari was not satisfied with this situation and went to the field at night to steal corpses for autopsy.
At that time, the University of Padua in Italy had the best anatomy classroom in Europe. So he went there to teach. In 1543, he sorted the materials accumulated in his work into a book and published it publicly. This book is the theory of human body structure. The book points out that Galen made more than 200 mistakes, such as five lobes of liver, two mandibles and so on. It is pointed out that the basis of Galen’s anatomy is animals such as monkeys. Visari was also criticized by conservatives at that time, but his students developed anatomy.
③ A. Parry raised the status of surgery. In the middle ages, surgery was despised because of its filthy operation. General surgery was carried out by barbers. Pare in France is a barber surgeon. Once served as a military doctor. In the treatment of war wounds, ointment was used instead of boiling oil to treat firearm wounds, and good results were achieved. He also used ligation instead of cauterization to stop bleeding, performed ectopic fetal inversion, and created artificial hands and feet. He doesn’t know Latin and doesn’t believe in Catholicism. His works are written in French, the native language.
④ New insights into infectious diseases. From the 14th century to the 16th century, infectious diseases were very popular and claimed countless lives. At this time, G. fracastoro (about 1478 ~ 1553) put forward new opinions on infectious diseases. He believes that infectious diseases are caused by a “particle” that can reproduce. He also pointed out three routes of infection.
In short, in the 16th century, European medicine got rid of the shackles of ancient authority and began to develop independently. Its main achievement was the establishment of human anatomy. This not only shows the revival of an ancient discipline at a new level, but also marks the beginning of a new journey of medicine.