In the 18th century, European countries have entered the period of the establishment of capitalism. In the 18th century, with the independence of the United States and the revolution in France, the bourgeoisie gained power in most Western European countries, expanded its power outward and developed world trade.
Stimulated by the demand for commodities, first of all, great technological innovation took place in the cotton textile industry in Britain. The loom and textile machine were invented. In 1784, J. watt made an improved steam engine, which was not only used in the textile industry, but also used in various industries and mining. Replacing manual production with machine production is the so-called industrial revolution. Manual workers became machine workers, and the industrial proletariat was first formed in Britain. At the same time, capitalist productive forces have greatly developed.
① Establishment of pathological anatomy. By the 18th century, medical scientists had dissected countless corpses and had a clear understanding of the normal structure of the human body. On this basis, they might recognize some abnormal structures. Italian pathoanatomist G.B. morgani (1682 ~ 1771) published a book on the location and causes of diseases in 1761, which described the changes of organs under the influence of diseases, and scientifically speculated on the causes of diseases.
He regarded the disease as a local injury, and believed that each disease had its corresponding lesion in an organ. After him, doctors began to use “focus” to explain symptoms. This thought has a great impact on the whole medical field in the future.
② The invention of percussion. In the second half of the 18th century, the Austrian doctor J.L. auenburg (1722 ~ 1809) invented percussion. His father was a hotel owner. He used to tap the big wine barrel with his fingers and guess the amount of wine in the barrel according to the sound. Later, ornbrugg applied this method to the human chest to find “lesions”. After a lot of experience and observation, including autopsy tracking, he founded the percussion method applied so far. But the popularization and application of percussion was in the 19th century.
③ The beginning of clinical teaching. Before the 17th century, there was no organized clinical education in Europe. Students went to medical schools to study. As long as they studied and passed the examination, they could receive a diploma. In the middle of the 17th century, Leiden University in the Netherlands began to implement clinical teaching, abolished the restrictions of religious sects, and absorbed many foreign students.
In the 18th century, clinical medicine teaching flourished, Leiden University set up teaching beds in the hospital, and H. burharvey (1668 ~ 1738) became a world-famous clinical physician at that time. Bukhawi made full use of hospital bed teaching. Before pathological anatomy, he tried to provide students with clinical symptoms and the data related to pathological changes, which was the pioneer of clinical pathology Seminar (C.P.C.).
④ Achievements in preventive medicine. E. Jenner (1749 ~ 1823) invented vaccinia, which was a major event in preventive medicine in the 18th century. In the 16th century, China has used human pox vaccination to prevent smallpox. At the beginning of the 18th century, this method was introduced to Britain through Turkey.
Jenner found that vaccination against cowpox was safer than vaccination against human pox. His improvement increased the safety of vaccination and contributed to the final elimination of smallpox. At the end of the 18th century, the industrial revolution rose. Farmers poured into the city. Capitalists only care about making money and don’t care about workers’ lives.
Workers live in dirty, damp slums. They work hard for a day without food and clothing, so they have a lot of diseases. Such problems have attracted the attention of some people. In addition, the thought of fraternity spread in the Enlightenment has had an impact on some people, so the problems of public health and social medicine have been put forward gradually.
German J.P. Frank (1745 ~ 1821) wrote the complete system of medical supervision, which talked about many problems of public health and social medicine. At the same time, there are also calls for improving prison hygiene and liberating mental patients (mental patients cannot be treated in cruel ways, such as wearing shackles and handcuffs). Such activities are mainly personal activities. It was not until the 19th century that the government gradually paid attention to these problems.