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In primitive times, due to the undeveloped culture, it was impossible to have monographs that separately recorded pharmacological knowledge. The existing books that record drug therapy in writing are called classical books, such as the Chinese Book of Poetry and the Shanhaijing, the Egyptian papyrus (papyrus), and the Vedic scriptures (veda) in India. The Babylonian Assyrian inscriptions can also be included in the pharmacological literature, as they contain the earliest knowledge of pharmacology. more than 700 kinds of medicines are recorded in Ebers Papyrus.
Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.) made great contributions to the development of ancient medicine. Because of his great medical achievements, he was called the sage of medicine by later generations, and later Dioscorides compiled the book “Demateria Medica”, which contains more than 500 kinds of medicines. This book is considered to be the main work of pharmacology for centuries. Calen (130-200 A.D.), the most distinguished medical practitioner of ancient Rome, was a contemporary of the Chinese medical sage Zhang Zhongjing. He had many works, more than 80 of which are extant, and had a great influence on the development of pharmacology in later generations. In particular, he made great contributions to the technology of plant preparation. The pharmaceuticals produced by the leaching method are still referred to as calen cals by later generations in his honor, and he played a seminal role in the development of pharmacology due to his creative research work. He is known as the originator of pharmacy.
In the Middle Ages (about the 3rd to 15th centuries), Europe was in a dark period, and the ancient Roman culture was destroyed due to the destruction of wars, so the center of medicine shifted with the social changes. It summarizes most of the knowledge of medicine in Asia, Africa and Europe at that time, and is regarded as a classic work of pharmacology with great influence on later generations. Il-Al-Baytal (1197-1248) was an outstanding medicinal botanist, and his “The Complete Book of Medicinal Plants” described more than 1,400 kinds of medicines.
With the rise of chemistry, physics, biology, anatomy and physiology, the development of pharmacology has been greatly facilitated. The main sign is that the division of labor is becoming more and more detailed, especially since the 20th century, the early drugs without subspecialty, due to the development of science and technology, has developed into independent disciplines, so that pharmacy is separated. And also with other disciplines, interpenetration into new marginal disciplines. In particular, the creation of receptor theory and genetic engineering has produced a new leap for the development of pharmacy.
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