These medical knowledge must be known! Look what’s there

alopah Date:2021-09-29 14:26:24
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The following basic medical knowledge can help us a lot. Let’s see what we have!


1,Normal value of glycosylated hemoglobin 6.5%

Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is the product of the combination of hemoglobin and glucose in red blood cells. It can reflect the average blood sugar level in the 3 months before blood collection. It is the most effective and reliable index reflecting the quality of blood sugar control. The glycated hemoglobin 7% should be taken as one of the criteria for the treatment of diabetes. The elderly can relax the standard slightly (7% to 7.5%). Young and middle-aged people should control glycosylated hemoglobin at 6.5% or lower.


When glycosylated hemoglobin decreased by 1%, diabetes related complications could be reduced by 20%. Therefore, even those with diabetes who fail to meet the above criteria should reduce the level of glycosylated hemoglobin as close to normal as possible.


2,Peak bone mineral density: 30-40 years old

The period of the highest bone mineral density (bone peak) in everyone’s life generally occurs at the age of 30-40. The bone peak is high and low due to the influence of postnatal nutrition, development, genetics and other factors. Men generally start at the age of 40, women generally start at the age of 35, and the bone peak begins to decline.


Women lose bone mass fastest within 5 years after menopause, and men lose bone mass fastest after the age of 70. People with high bone peak have high calcium content in their bones, and the degree of osteoporosis is light and late in old age. Therefore, people before the age of 40 should seize the opportunity to ensure adequate nutrition and calcium intake every day, actively participate in physical exercise and strive to improve their bone peak.


3,25 grams of oil per person per day is appropriate

When cooking, it is best to use vegetable oil, thinking that vegetable oil contains more unsaturated fatty acids beneficial to the heart. Because the heat of oil is relatively high, the dosage should not be too much, otherwise excess heat will also be transformed into body fat and make people fat.


4,The daily amount of salt should not exceed 6 grams

Salt is an important risk factor for hypertension. People with heavy taste should pay special attention. The daily salt content shall also include the salt content in soy sauce, pickles, salted eggs, etc.


5,Eat 400-500 grams of vegetables every day

More than half of the vegetables used every day should be colored vegetables, such as green leafy vegetables and red and yellow vegetables. Vegetables are rich in vitamins, minerals, cellulose and low in calories.


6,Daily calcium intake: 600-800 mg for healthy adults

Recommended calcium supply: 600-800 mg / day for adults, 1200 mg / day for pregnant women and 2000 mg / day for lactating mothers. Milk and dairy products are rich in calcium and have high absorption rate. Among aquatic products, shrimp skin, kelp and bean products contain more calcium. In order to promote the absorption of calcium, vitamin D should be supplemented appropriately and more sun exposure should be made.


7,Drink more than 1500 ml of water every day

The amount of drinking water includes the total water content of tea, soup, fruit and other foods consumed every day. The way of drinking water is very particular. If you are not thirsty, you should also drink water. Don’t drink a lot of water at one time. You should drink boiled water or green tea. Don’t use sugary drinks instead of water.


8,The best time for stroke rehabilitation: 3 days after cerebral infarction and 5-7 days after intracerebral hemorrhage

So far, no drug has a decisive rehabilitation effect on hemiplegia. Only rehabilitation training is an effective method to improve the dysfunction of stroke patients. For stroke hemiplegic patients, the effect of rehabilitation training is far better than medication. The earlier the rehabilitation training is carried out, the more scientific and perfect it is, the greater the chance of rehabilitation is


9,The normal value of alanyl aminotransferase (GPT or ALT) is < 40 units / L

The increase of alanine aminotransferase often indicates the existence of liver damage, such as acute and chronic viral hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, drug-induced hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. You should go to the hospital in time.


basic medical knowledge


10,Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) < 25 μ g / L (also refer to the normal reference value on the test sheet)

Alpha fetoprotein is a glycoprotein synthesized by the liver in the early stage of fetus. After birth, the synthesis of AFP is quickly inhibited. When hepatocytes become malignant, the content of AFP in blood increases significantly. The increase of AFP, especially slightly higher than the normal value, does not necessarily mean suffering from malignant tumors. It should be observed dynamically and do not panic.


11,Thrombolysis time window of stroke: 3 hours after onset

After the occurrence of cerebral infarction, if intravenous thrombolysis can be given within 3 hours after the onset, it can dredge and block blood vessels to the greatest extent, save dying brain cells, and effectively reduce the occurrence of complications and sequelae. Once this time window is missed, thrombolysis is almost ineffective.


If the elderly suddenly have signs of stroke (such as inflexible hands and feet on one side, numbness, aphasia, blurred vision, etc.), don’t be careless. They should go to the hospital immediately to buy time for treatment.


12,18 ~ 45 years old myopia < 1200 degrees: excimer laser myopia surgery can be done

Under the age of 18; The degree of myopia is unstable, and it is still deepening year by year in recent years; Myopia > 1200 degrees; Active eye diseases (such as inflammation, glaucoma, dry eye, etc.); Central corneal thickness < 450 microns; Other serious eye diseases (such as keratoconus, etc.); Excimer laser myopia can not be performed in patients with autoimmune diseases, such as scarring and severe diabetes.


13,Over 40 years old, check B-ultrasound once a year

Ultrasound examination has the advantages of non-invasive, non radiation, convenience and accuracy. It can not only find common diseases such as stone cyst, fatty liver, but also early find some tumors. Limited by the physical properties of ultrasound, ultrasound examination is more suitable for solid organs, such as liver, spleen and kidney, but generally not for air containing organs (such as gastrointestinal tract) and skeletal system.


14,For women over 40 years old, check molybdenum target photography once a year

In recent years, the incidence rate of breast cancer has been increasing year by year. Mammography has a high diagnostic value for breast diseases, especially for early breast cancer. It is the first choice for imaging diagnosis except for physical examination. If there are high risk factors such as family history of breast cancer, it should start from 35 years old and undergo mammography once a year after 40 years old. Appropriately increase the number of examinations according to the opinions of doctors.


Breast tissue of young women under 35 years old is compact and mammography is not easy to detect lesions. It is suggested that ultrasonography be used as an early diagnostic tool for breast cancer.


15,Calculation of due date: the month of the last menstrual date plus 9 or minus 3 is the number of months of due date; The number of days plus 7 is the expected date of delivery. For example, Kobayashi’s last menstruation was on May 3, 2006, and the expected date of delivery is about February 10, 2007. Due to the different length of each female’s menstrual cycle, the calculated expected date of delivery may have an error of 1 ~ 2 weeks.


16,Prenatal examination: 9 times is the best

In addition to one examination in the early pregnancy to determine pregnancy, about 9 prenatal examinations are required from the second trimester of pregnancy to full-term pregnancy, generally every 4 weeks from 20 weeks to 36 weeks of pregnancy; After 36 weeks of pregnancy, the patients were examined once a week for 9 times.


The examination time was 20 weeks, 24 weeks, 28 weeks, 32 weeks, 36 weeks, 37 weeks, 38 weeks, 39 weeks and 40 weeks respectively. The regular prenatal examination is generally 9 times, but for pregnant women with some high-risk factors, it may be necessary to increase the number of examinations and items at any time.


17,Weight gain during pregnancy should not exceed 15kg

For women with normal weight before pregnancy, their weight during pregnancy can increase by 11.25 ~ 15kg, for women with low weight before pregnancy, and for women with heavy weight before pregnancy, their weight gain during pregnancy should be controlled to 6.75 ~ 11.25kg.


The amount of weight gain during pregnancy will indirectly affect the growth speed and weight of the fetus. Excessive and rapid weight gain during pregnancy will not only increase the incidence of macrosomia, but also increase the difficulty of postpartum weight loss. On the contrary, if the weight gain is too small, it will affect the normal growth and development of the fetus.


18,Pregnant women: menopause for 5 ~ 10 weeks is the most dangerous

In the first two weeks after conception, if the fertilized egg is affected by drugs, there may be two outcomes: one is spontaneous abortion; The other is that the fertilized egg repairs itself and continues to develop into a normal fetus. Therefore, if the pregnant woman accidentally takes medicine at this stage, she can take the attitude of watching it change and let it go. However, 3 ~ 8 weeks after conception (i.e. 5 ~ 10 weeks of menopause) is the key stage of embryonic organ differentiation and development. At this time, if she is exposed to harmful drugs, the embryonic organs may be deformed.


Because most of the effects of drugs on the fetus are concentrated in the early stage of pregnancy, at this time, a considerable number of pregnant women do not know that they are pregnant. In order to ensure safety, expectant mothers should begin to consider drug safety in the preparation for pregnancy.


19,Full term delivery: delivery from 37 weeks of gestation to less than 42 weeks of gestation

Premature delivery: delivery between 28 weeks and less than 37 weeks of pregnancy; overdue delivery: delivery at or more than 42 weeks of pregnancy. Born at 38 weeks of gestation, although it is not due (40 weeks of gestation), it is also full-term.


20,Normal newborn weight: 2500 ~ 4000g

Low birth weight infants with birth weight < 2500 g; If the birth weight is > 4000g, it is called a giant. Macrosomia will not only increase the rate of dystocia and cesarean section, but also increase too much weight during pregnancy, which will make pregnant women feel uncomfortable, increase the incidence of complications during pregnancy, and it is also very difficult to lose these excess weight after delivery.


Low weight infants mainly include preterm infants and small sample infants. These children have many complications and high perinatal mortality due to congenital deficiency. In order to eliminate this phenomenon, Regular prenatal examination, timely discovery of problems and timely intervention are very important.

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