You must know medical knowledge

alopah Date:2021-09-09 17:24:40
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medical knowledge:

Normal heart rate: 75 beats per minute


The average heart rate of healthy adults in a quiet state is 75 beats per minute. The normal range is 60-100 times per minute. When the heart rate of adults exceeds 100 beats / minute at rest, it is tachycardia; If it is less than 60 times / minute, it is bradycardia. Heart rate can vary according to age, gender and other factors. For example, for every 1 ℃ rise in body temperature, the heart rate can be accelerated by 12-20 times / min. the heart rate of women is slightly faster than that of men, and the heart rate of athletes is slower.


Normal body temperature: 36.3 ℃ – 37.2 ℃ (oral measurement)

Clinically, oral temperature, rectal temperature and axillary temperature are usually used to represent body temperature. The normal value of oral measurement (including 5 minutes under the tongue) is 36.3 ℃ – 37.2 ℃; Axillary measurement (axillary clamping for 5 minutes) is 36 ℃ – 37 ℃; Anometry (the head is coated with lubricant and inserted into the anus for 5 minutes) is 36.5 ℃ – 37.7 ℃. In a day and night, human body temperature fluctuates periodically. Generally, it is the lowest at 2-6 a.m. and the highest at 13-18 p.m., but the fluctuation range is generally no more than 1 ℃. As long as the body temperature does not exceed 37.3 ℃, it is normal.


Hemoglobin (HBB): adult male (120-160 g / L), adult female (110-150 g / L)

Clinically, hemoglobin value is the basis for judging anemia. The hemoglobin value of normal adults is 90-110g / L, belonging to mild anemia; 60-90g / L is moderate anemia; 30-60g / L is severe anemia; White blood cell count (WBC): 4-10 * (9th power of 10) PCS / L


Leukocyte count greater than 10 * (the 9th power of 10) per liter is called leukocytosis, and less than 10 * (the 9th power of 10) per liter is called leukocytosis

Generally speaking, leukocytes can increase in acute bacterial infection or inflammation; White blood cells decrease when infected with the virus. Cold and fever can be caused by virus infection or bacterial infection. In order to clarify the cause and guide clinical medication, the doctor usually asks you to check a blood routine.


Platelet count (PLT): 100-300 * (9th power of 10) PCS / L

Platelets have the function of maintaining the integrity of vascular wall. When the number of platelets is reduced to less than 50 * (the 9th power of 10) / L, especially as low as 30 * (the 9th power of 10) / L, it may lead to bleeding and ecchymosis on the skin. Platelets are not low, and “black blocks” often appear on the skin. There is no need to be too nervous, because in addition to platelet factors, vascular wall factors, coagulation factors and some physiological factors will lead to the occurrence of “black blocks”. You can go to the hematology department to see a doctor and clarify the reasons.


Urine volume: 1000-2000 ml / 24 hours

24-hour urine volume > 2500 ml is polyuria. Physiological polyuria occurs after drinking too much water or using diuretics. Pathological polyuria is found in diabetes, diabetes insipidus and renal tubular diseases.


24-hour urine volume and night urine volume: 500ml

Nocturia refers to the total urine volume from 8 p.m. to 8 a.m. the next day, generally 500 ml, with 2-3 urinations. If the amount of nocturia exceeds the amount of urine in the day, and the number of micturition increases significantly, it becomes the increase of nocturia. Physiological nocturia is related to drinking too much water before going to bed; Pathological nocturia is often the manifestation of impaired renal concentration function and an early signal of renal dysfunction. In addition to renal dysfunction, nocturia may also be caused by male prostatic hyperplasia, uterine prolapse in elderly women, urinary tract infection, diabetes, and mental stress.


Normal value of urinary red blood cell count (RBC): 0-3 / high power visual field

Urine red blood cells > 3 / high-power field, which is called microscopic hematuria.


Normal value of urinary red blood cell and urinary white blood cell count (WBC): 5 / high-power field, which is called microscopic pyuria.


If there are a large number of leukocytes in the urine, it is mostly urinary system infection, such as pyelonephritis, renal tuberculosis, cystitis or urethral infection.


Sperm survival time: 72 hours. Egg survival time: 24 hours.


Safe period contraception encounters the trouble of unsafe safe period. In addition to making a mistake about the ovulation period, there is another factor that can not be ignored: because sperm can survive for 3 days in women, even if the day is not the ovulation day, women are still likely to conceive as long as they are in the pregnancy period (4 days before ovulation to 2 days after ovulation).


medical knowledge


Two major blood group systems: ABO and Rh

ABO blood group system divides blood into four types: type A, type B, type AB and type o. Rh blood group system divides blood groups into two types: RH positive type and Rh negative type. Among Caucasians, 85% were RH positive and 15% were Rh negative. In China, 99% of people belong to RH positive blood group and Rh negative belongs to rare blood group.


A-A:A、O ;  A-B:A、B、O、AB ;  A-AB:A、B、AB ;  A-O:A、O


B-B:B、O ;  B-AB:A、B、AB ;  B-O:B、O ;  O-AB:A、B


O-O:O ;  AB-Ab: if one of a, B and ab is type AB, the baby cannot be type o. If both sides are O-type, the baby can only be O-type.


Body mass index (BMI) = square of weight (kg) / height (m): 18.5-23.9, normal


The best weight loss speed of body mass index: lose 1-2kg per month

Overweight people should gradually lose weight under the guidance of doctors. Losing weight too fast and too hard will lead to weight rebound, anorexia, anemia, malnutrition, irregular menstruation, hair loss, memory loss, osteoporosis and other adverse reactions.


Waist circumference: male ≥ 90cm and female ≥ 80cm are abdominal obesity

Waist circumference is an indicator of abdominal fat accumulation and abdominal obesity (also known as “Apple obesity”). Abdominal obesity is considered to be an important risk factor for coronary heart disease and metabolic syndrome. If the body mass index has not reached the degree of obesity, but the waist circumference has exceeded the standard, it means that you are abdominal obesity. Abdominal obesity is more dangerous than obese people, and is more susceptible to coronary heart disease and diabetes.


Obesity signal: gain 1.5kg a month

At the beginning of the upward “long” weight, we can find it in time and take weight loss measures, which can often achieve remarkable results. The following situations often indicate the trend of weight gain: a little exercise can’t breathe, a sense of fatigue and weakness, sweating all the time, lower back, hip and knee pain.


Blood pressure: normal, systolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure < 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg

When blood pressure is measured quietly without antihypertensive drugs, systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg and / or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg are found at least three times, which can be diagnosed as hypertension. Systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg, but diastolic blood pressure of < 90 mmHg is called simple systolic hypertension.


Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Patients with hypertension should apply hypotensive drugs under the guidance of doctors to control blood pressure in normal range. Those with diabetic nephropathy should better control their blood pressure below 130/80 mm Hg.


diagnostic criteria for diabetes: fasting blood glucose >7.0 mmol / liter, and / or postprandial 2 hour blood glucose >11.1 mmol / liter

If the above criteria are met, what is already a diabetic patient should be hypoglycemic treatment under the guidance of a doctor. If blood sugar is not well controlled, all organs of the whole body will be affected.


diabetes exclusion criteria: fasting blood glucose

6.1 mmol / L, and / or 2-hour postprandial blood glucose 7.8 mmol / L


pre diabetes diagnostic criteria: 6.1 mmol / L < fasting blood glucose <7.0 mmol / L, and / or 7.8 mmol / L < 2 hours postprandial blood glucose <11.1 mmol / L

If your blood sugar level is above normal, but it has not yet reached the diagnostic criteria of diabetes, you are in pre diabetes. If you are not vigilant and do not intervene actively, you will soon develop diabetes.


diabetes warning signal: fasting blood glucose >5.6 mmol / liter

When fasting blood glucose exceeds this standard, the incidence of diabetes mellitus is significantly increased in the population, and the incidence rate of cardiovascular events and diabetic retinopathy such as ischemic heart disease is increased significantly.


Fasting plasma glucose >5.6 millitrm / liter should go to the hospital to check the glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as soon as possible to determine whether there is postprandial blood glucose elevation because fasting blood glucose can be completely normal in the early stage of diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance.

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