Antibiotics used to be called antimicrobial. In fact, they can not only kill bacteria, but also have a good inhibitory and killing effect on molds, mycoplasma, chlamydia, spirochete, rickettsia and other pathogenic microorganisms. Usually, antimicrobial are renamed antibiotics. Antibiotics can be a substance produced in the process of the growth and reproduction of certain microorganisms, which can be used to treat diseases in addition to the direct extraction of antibiotics; Some are completely or partially synthetic. Colloquially, antibiotics are drugs used to treat a variety of non-viral infections. However, many side effects have been shown in clinical use.
Six basic principles that must be considered in the clinical use of antibiotics
1,Strictly master the indications, and try not to use what is available or not; In addition to considering the specific antibacterial effect of antibiotics, we must also grasp the relationship between the adverse reactions of drugs and the process in vivo and the curative effect.
2,Antibiotics should not be used in patients with fever whose cause is unknown (except for those who are critically ill and highly suspected to be bacterial infection), because the use of antibiotics often makes it difficult to detect pathogenic microorganisms, and makes clinical manifestations atypical, affecting clinical diagnosis and delaying treatment.
3,No antibiotics are used for viral or presumed viral infections. Antibiotics have no effect on various viral infections, and it is not helpful to give antibiotics to patients with measles, mumps, colds, flu, etc. Pharynx isthmitis, upper respiratory tract infection 90% above is caused by viral place because this divides can affirmation for bacterial infection outside, do not use antibiotic commonly.
4,Avoid the application of antibiotics on the skin and mucous membrane as much as possible, because allergic reactions are easy to occur and drug-resistant bacteria are easy to occur. Therefore, in addition to the main topical antibiotics such as neomycin, bacitracin, other antibiotics especially penicillin topical application should be avoided as far as possible. When applying antibiotics to ocular mucosa and skin burns, the doctor should advise the time and the appropriate dose.
5,Strictly control the scope of prophylactic antibiotics.
6,Continuous use of antibiotics should not exceed one week. For family medicine, residents should change the past use of some misunderstandings of antibiotics, such as a cold fever, sore throat cough and so on amoxicillin; There is a abdominal pain, diarrhea on the wrong understanding of norfloxacin. Keep in mind that antibiotics belong to prescription drugs, need to be used under the guidance of doctors, can not abuse, otherwise light to bear unnecessary adverse reactions, heavy will cause resistance, for the future medication brings trouble, aggravates the medical burden of their own and the society.
Common misuses of antibiotics
Although it is not consumers’ intention to abuse antibiotics, many consumers are more or less caught in some misunderstandings of using antibiotics due to their lack of understanding of the relevant knowledge of antibiotics, which is the source of many antibiotics being abused.
Myth 1:antibiotics = anti-inflammatory drugs
Antibiotics do not directly target inflammation, but rather kill the microbes that cause it. Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin, target inflammation.
Most people are under the illusion that antibiotics can cure all inflammation. Antibiotics actually have no effect on inflammation caused by viruses. There are a large number of normal and beneficial bacteria in the human body. If antibiotics are used to treat aseptic inflammation, these drugs will suppress and kill the beneficial bacteria in the human body after entering the human body, resulting in bacterial disorders and decreased resistance. In daily life, local soft tissue stasis, redness, pain, contact dermatitis caused by allergic reaction, drug dermatitis and inflammation caused by viruses are not suitable for the treatment of antibiotics.
Myth 2: Antibiotics prevent infections
Antibiotics are only suitable for inflammation caused by bacteria and some other microbes. Antibiotics target the microbes that cause inflammation and kill them. Instead of preventing infection, long-term use of antibiotics can cause bacterial resistance.
Myth 3: broad-spectrum antibiotics are better than narrow-spectrum antibiotics
The principles of antibiotic use are you can use a narrow spectrum not a broad spectrum, you can use a low spectrum not a high spectrum, you can use one that solves the problem not two, and you generally don’t use a combination of antibiotics for mild or moderate infections. Broad-spectrum antibiotics can be used when no pathogenic microorganism is identified, and narrow spectrum antibiotics are best used if the pathogenic microorganism is identified. Otherwise, it is easy to increase bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
Myth 4:New antibiotics are better than old ones
In fact, each antibiotic has its own characteristics, advantages and disadvantages are different. Generally, according to the etiology of human selection, adhere to individualized administration. For example, erythromycin is an old and cheap antibiotic, and it is quite effective against pneumonia caused by legionella and mycoplasma, which is not as effective as the very expensive carbapenems and third generation cephalosporins. In addition, some old drugs have stable efficacy, cheap price and definite adverse reactions.
On the other hand, new antibiotics are often created because of resistance to older antibiotics, which should be used if they are effective.
Myth 5: Combine antibiotics
Combination of antibiotics is generally not recommended. Because the combination of drug use can increase some unreasonable drug use factors, which can not increase the efficacy, but reduce the efficacy, and easy to produce some toxic side effects or bacterial resistance to drugs. Therefore, the more kinds of drug combination, the higher the incidence of side effects and adverse reactions caused by this. In general, to avoid resistance and side effects, you should never use two antibiotics for a problem that can be solved by one.
Myth 6: Take antibiotics when you have a cold
A cold can be caused by either a virus or bacteria. A cold caused by a virus is a viral cold, and a cold caused by bacteria is a bacterial cold. Antibiotics are only useful for bacterial colds.
In fact, many colds are viral. Strictly speaking, there is no effective drug for viral colds, just symptomatic treatment, and do not need to use antibiotics. You’ve probably all had the experience of buying some cold medicine at the drugstore and adding some antibiotics. In fact, antibiotics at this time is useless, waste is also abuse.
Myth 7:Use antibiotics when you have a fever
Antibiotic only applies to the inflammation caused by bacteria and part of other microorganisms fever, to viral cold, measles, mumps, colds, flu and other patients give antibiotic treatment harmful and useless. Infection of pharyngitis, upper respiratory tract is caused by virus more, application antibiotic is invalid.
In addition, there are many different types of fevers caused by bacterial infections, and antibiotics such as cephalosporins should not be blindly used. For example, the fever caused by tuberculosis, if the blind use of antibiotics and delay the regular anti-tuberculosis treatment will delay the disease. It is best to take the medicine under the guidance of a doctor.
Myth 8: Change antibiotics frequently
The efficacy of antibiotics has a cycle problem. If the efficacy of some antibiotics is temporarily bad, the first consideration should be given to the insufficient time of medication. In addition, factors such as improper route of administration and the state of immune function of the whole body can also affect the efficacy of antibiotics. If these factors are involved, the effect can be improved by adjusting for them.
Changing medications frequently can cause confusion and harm your body. What’s more, frequent dressing changes can easily cause bacteria to develop resistance to multiple drugs.
Myth 9: Stop taking medicine once it’s working
As we have seen before, there is a cycle of antibiotic use. If you don’t take the drug for enough time, you may not see an effect at all. Even if it is effective, it should be taken for the necessary period under the guidance of a doctor. If you stop taking the medicine after having a little effect, you will not be able to cure the disease, and even the disease that has improved may rebound due to the residual bacteria.
Similarly, stopping the drug once it has worked and then taking it again if the symptoms come back can increase the natural selection time for the bacteria to become resistant to the drug.