Antianxiety drugs is a drug mainly used to relieve anxiety and tension. Mainly benzodiazepines, including limonine, diazepam and its derivatives. These drugs have good therapeutic effect, high safety and small side effects. They have the effects of anti epilepsy, anti anxiety, relaxation muscle tension, sedation and sleep. They are most widely used in clinical practice.
It is used to relieve anxiety and tension caused by various reasons, such as various types of neurosis, depression, brain trauma, cerebral arteriosclerosis and other organic psychoses in psychiatry; Hypertension and hyperthyroidism in internal medicine; Women’s premenstrual and menopause; Anxiety response caused by antipsychotics; Stress state, such as before and after surgery, after special or unexpected events. The drug is absorbed quickly after oral administration, mainly metabolized in the liver and excreted by urine. Although the pharmacological effects and curative effects of these drugs are similar, the methods of use are not exactly the same.
If the sedative effect lasts for a long time, the effect can be achieved by taking drugs 1 ~ 2 times a day. Most patients take drugs once before going to bed every night, which can not only improve their sleep at night, but also control their anxiety symptoms during the day; For example, norhydroxydiazepam and alprazolam have short action time and need to be administered 3 ~ 4 times a day; Flurazepam and nitrodiazepam are used as sleeping pills because they have good sleeping effect. Take them once before going to bed every night.
The long-term use of this group of drugs can produce dependence, generally not more than 6 weeks. Gradually reduce the amount when stopping the drug to avoid withdrawal reactions, such as insomnia, headache, irritability, excitement, nausea, vomiting, muscle pain or twitch. In severe cases, there may be seizures or acute excitement. This group of drugs is relatively safe, and even a large number of drugs rarely produce serious poisoning or death. The side effects are mild, mainly drowsiness, dizziness and dizziness. Excessive dose can cause tremor and ataxia. The patient is sweating, dizziness, shortness of breath, tachycardia, cold and fever, cold or fever of hands and feet, uncomfortable stomach, frequent urination and defecation, and obstruction of throat; Sometimes it can affect the reaction time and coordinated action, and affect driving the car.
Anti anxiety drugs are mainly divided into four categories:
(1) Benzodiazepines. Such drugs include diazepam, chloronitrogen, norhydroxydiazepam, nitrodiazepam, fluorodiazepam, etc. These drugs have anti anxiety, sedative and hypnotic effects in large doses. They are also an effective muscle relaxant and antiepileptic drug. Its drugs mainly act on the reticular structure and limbic system of the brain, thus producing sedative and hypnotic effects.
(2) Carbamates. Such as methylalanine ester, kallipido, etc. This kind of medicine has sedative and anti anxiety effects and can be used for insomnia. This medicine is mainly used for nervous and anxiety state of neurosis.
(3) Diphenylmethane. Such as dingtaile, this kind of medicine has the effects of sedation, weak stability, muscle relaxation and anti histamine, so it can be used to treat insomnia. Generally, it is mainly used for mental and neurological symptoms such as mild anxiety, tension, excitement and anxiety during menopause.
(4) Other categories, such as fenalo and oryzanol. Oryzanol is mainly used to adjust autonomic nerve function, reduce endocrine balance disorder and improve mental and neurological disorders. It can not only improve anxiety state, but also play a good role in insomnia caused by anxiety.
In addition to the above four categories, there are β- Adrenergic receptor blockers, phenothiazides, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates and other sedatives are sometimes used in combination with clinic.