Cold medicine is a general name of various drugs used to treat colds, mainly including antipyretic and analgesic drugs, antiviral drugs, nasal mucosal vasoconstrictors, antihistamines and central stimulants. Generally, several symptoms occur at the same time after suffering from a cold, such as headache, stuffy nose, cough, etc., so cold drugs are usually compound preparations.
Cold medicine is a common type of medicine in life. Most of them are over-the-counter drugs. It is also a kind of medicine that everyone can choose at will. It is precisely because such drugs do not need the convenience of doctors and can choose to buy them, which also leads to the misunderstanding of many people.
1,If the symptoms are not serious, do not use drugs first.
Cold is a self limiting disease, which means that if you don’t intervene, you will recover in about a week. I have heard such a joke that taking medicine for a week can cure a cold, and not taking medicine for 7 days can cure a cold. It’s the characteristic of a cold. After all, “drugs are three poisons”, and taking too many drugs is not good. Of course, if the symptoms are serious, or affect the normal life, or still do not improve after a week, you should choose to see a doctor.
2,Do not add or use multiple cold medicines without authorization.
Although cold medicine is usually over-the-counter, it does not mean that it is absolutely safe. Many people often take several drugs at the same time in order to get better quickly; Or ignore the instructions and take several pills at the same time. These are drug overdoses.
At present, the common cold medicines on the market are usually compound preparations, and the components of different brands of cold medicines may not vary greatly. If several brands of cold medicines are taken at the same time, it is very likely to lead to the excessive use of a certain component and the occurrence of adverse reactions. For example, the most common acetaminophen exists in more than 100 brands of cold drugs such as Baijiahei, Ganmaoling granules and Tylenol, and excessive use of acetaminophen may lead to liver failure or even death.
3,It should be used symptomatically.
If there is only a single cold symptom, or a symptom is particularly prominent, the drugs for treating the symptom should be selected accordingly, which can not only quickly alleviate the symptoms, but also avoid taking additional drug components and reduce the damage to the body.
Headache, muscle soreness, fever. Drugs containing acetaminophen or ibuprofen can be used, but considering that cold drugs containing acetaminophen are usually compound preparations, ibuprofen tablets or ibuprofen capsules can be selected if they are only a single symptom.
Runny nose, sneezing, itchy nose. Cold medicines containing antihistamines such as chlorphenamine maleate, diphenhydramine or loratadine can be used, which have anti allergic effects.
However, it should be noted that the first generation antihistamines such as chlorpheniramine and diphenhydramine have central inhibitory effects and can lead to drowsiness. For people who need precision work, high-altitude work and driving, the second generation antihistamines should be used instead, including loratadine and cetirizine.
nasal congestion Cold medicine containing pseudoephedrine can be used. It can reduce the symptoms of nasopharyngeal mucosal congestion by constricting blood vessels. But patients with high blood pressure, diabetes and elevated intraocular pressure should be used with caution. In addition, because it can stimulate the nervous system, patients with prostatic hypertrophy and hyperthyroidism should use it carefully, as should pregnant women and athletes.
cough Drugs containing dextromethorphan can be used. Dextromethorphan is a central antitussive drug.
4,Do not use antibiotics at will.
Many people feel anti-inflammatory as soon as they have respiratory symptoms such as sore throat. They immediately go to the drugstore to buy anti-inflammatory drugs such as amoxicillin. Anti inflammatory drugs are antibiotics. Antibiotics only treat colds caused by bacteria.
Therefore, antibiotics can be used only when it is clear that it is a bacterial cold or combined with bacterial infection. Otherwise, do not use antibiotics without clear indications. Most common cold or influenza are caused by viruses, and no antibiotics are needed.