Treatment of myocardial infarction includes limiting and reducing the infarct size, thrombolytic therapy and emergency percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and surgical bypass surgery. If the condition is stable and there are no symptoms, long-term oral aspirin 100mg/day and pansentine 50mg 3 times a day can be used to prevent reinfarction by antiplatelet aggregation. Commonly used drugs in the treatment of myocardial infarction, when the condition is less stable: nitroglycerin, intravenous drip, but caution when hypotension, hypovolemia or tachycardia; beta-blockers, suitable for high blood pressure, rapid heart rate, chest pain, prohibited in heart failure, hypotension and slow arrhythmias; calcium blockers. If the conditions are good, they can also be supplemented with “compound Danshin drops”, “Ginkgo biloba”, quick-acting heart pills, etc. If combined with severe hypertension or coronary artery spasm, nifedipine and thioprostone can be used. Commonly used drugs for thrombolytic therapy include streptokinase, urokinase and tissue-type fibrinogen activator.
In the recovery period, the common drugs used in the treatment of myocardial infarction are lipid-regulating drugs, including: polyclonal, norethindrone, lipid-lowering isoproterenol, niacin, etc.
When myocardial infarction occurs, the methods of first aid are:
Step1 Keep calling the patient’s name to keep him awake, never pass out; it is better to prepare a small bottle of incense oil – the king of first aid around, at this time, first put a few drops of incense oil on the patient’s tongue.
Step2 Press the patient’s human middle with your fingers and press until the patient’s brow wrinkles up.
Step3 Hold an empty fist and repeatedly press the patient’s chest from Tanzhong to Huagai area to stimulate the heart booty muscles.
Step4 Hold an empty fist with the right hand, fold the left hand over it and roll the patient’s chest from right to left with the force of the body; remind the patient to inhale when pressing and rolling, and exhale when the hand is released. Keep doing this until the patient’s two shoulders will move and his face turns better.
Dietary considerations for people with myocardial infarction
1、Fine and soft food, less food and more meals: Due to the low pumping function of patients with myocardial infarction, it leads to weakened gastrointestinal mucous membrane function, stasis of blood, poor digestion, loss of appetite and reduced secretion of digestive juices. Therefore, usually eat easy-to-digest, semi-liquid soft food, and at the same time, eat 4-5 times a day, not easily too much. Otherwise, due to abdominal distension, the relative increase in blood flow to the abdominal organs, reflexively reduce the relative reduction in coronary blood flow, easy to induce heart rhythm disorders, aggravate the degree of myocardial infarction, heart failure, angina pectoris, serious will also cause sudden death.
2, low cholesterol, low-fat diet: daily diet should be corn oil, canola oil, sesame oil, peanut oil, soybean oil and other cooking oils. These vegetable oils do not contain cholesterol and are unsaturated fatty acids, which are beneficial to the recovery of patients. Avoid cholesterol-containing animal offal and excessive animal fat, and eat more soy products. The total daily intake of cholesterol should be controlled below 300mg.
3, limit salt: excessive sodium intake can increase the sensitivity of blood vessels to various substances that raise blood pressure, causing small arteries to spasm and raise blood pressure. Sodium also has a strong role in absorbing water, too much salt can increase blood volume, thus directly increasing the burden on the heart. Therefore, the daily salt intake of patients with myocardial infarction should not exceed 4g.
4, control the total calorie intake: clinical data show that the chances of myocardial infarction are greater in obese people, because too much fat surrounds the heart, compressing the myocardium and leading to weakened myocardial function, so it is necessary to control weight and limit total calories. In the case of rest, the daily supply of calories to 25-30 kcal/kg body weight is appropriate.
5, supplementation of trace elements and vitamin C: trace elements of magnesium and iodine have an important role in reducing serum cholesterol, which can reduce the formation of slowing atherosclerotic lesions, calcium salts and cholesterol deposition in the walls of blood vessels. Vitamin C has the ability to prevent bleeding, promote wound healing, and enhance vascular elasticity. Foods rich in vitamin C are mainly fruits and vegetables, especially strawberries, tomatoes, fresh dates, kiwi, etc. Seafood foods such as kelp, nori, jellyfish, fish and shrimp contain more iodine and can be consumed alternately in the daily diet, and magnesium is more abundant in green leafy vegetables.